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We describe a novel sequencing approach that combines non-gel-based signature sequencing with in vitro cloning of millions of templates on separate 5 microm diameter microbeads. After constructing a microbead library of DNA templates by in vitro cloning, we assembled a planar array of a million template-containing microbeads in a flow cell at a density(More)
To understand how the Wnt coreceptor LRP-5 is involved in transducing the canonical Wnt signals, we identified Axin as a protein that interacts with the intracellular domain of LRP-5. LRP-5, when expressed in fibroblast cells, showed no effect on the canonical Wnt signaling pathway by itself, but acted synergistically with Wnt. In contrast, LRP-5 mutants(More)
Dishevelled (Dsh/Dvl) proteins are known to mediate Wnt signaling by up-regulating beta-catenin levels and stimulating T cell factor (TCF)/LEF-1-dependent transcription. We have identified a new Dvl-mediated signaling pathway in that mouse Dvl proteins, when expressed in COS-7 cells, stimulate c-Jun-dependent transcription activity and the kinase activity(More)
Wnt proteins transduce their signals through dishevelled (Dvl) proteins to inhibit glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK), leading to the accumulation of cytosolic beta-catenin and activation of TCF/LEF-1 transcription factors. To understand the mechanism by which Dvl acts through GSK to regulate LEF-1, we investigated the roles of Axin and Frat1 in(More)
The hydroperoxyl radical (HO 2) is a major precursor of OH and tropospheric ozone. OH is the main atmospheric oxidant, while tropospheric ozone is an important surface pollutant and greenhouse gas. Standard gas-phase models for atmospheric chemistry tend to overestimate observed HO 2 concentrations, and this has been tentatively attributed to heterogeneous(More)
Our understanding of origins and spread of emerging infectious diseases has increased dramatically because of recent applications of phylogenetic theory. Iridoviruses are emerging pathogens that cause global amphibian epizootics, including tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) die-offs throughout western North America. To explain phylogeographical(More)
Signal transduction pathways that mediate activation of serum response factor (SRF) by heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits were characterized in transfection systems. Galphaq, Galpha12, and Galpha13, but not Galphai, activate SRF through RhoA. When Galphaq, alpha12, or alpha13 were coexpressed with a Rho-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor(More)
Within the past decade, iridoviruses have been identified as the causative agents of systemic disease in a variety of commercially and recreationally important fish. Here we examine nine iridoviruses from fish, reptiles, and amphibians and demonstrate that all isolates were more similar to frog virus 3, the type species of the genus Ranavirus, than to(More)
The DEP domain of Dishevelled (Dvl) proteins transduces signals to effector proteins downstream of Dvl in the Wnt pathway. Here we report that DEP-containing mutants inhibit Wnt-induced, but not Dvl-induced, activation of the transcription factor Lef-1. This inhibitory effect is weakened by a K434M mutation. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed(More)
We analyze detailed atmospheric gas/aerosol composition data acquired during the 2008 NASA ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites) airborne campaign performed at high northern latitudes in spring (ARCTAS-A) and summer (ARCTAS-B) and in California in summer (ARCTAS-CARB). Biomass burning influences were(More)