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OBJECTIVE To investigate the pathophysiologic mechanisms that lead to ileus after abdominal surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA The common supposition is that more invasive operations are associated with a more extensive ileus. The cellular mechanisms of postsurgical ileus remain elusive, and few studies have addressed the mechanisms. METHODS Rats were(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS This study demonstrates a significant role for cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and prostanoid production as mechanisms for surgically induced postoperative ileus. METHODS Rats, COX-2+/+, and COX-2-/- mice underwent simple intestinal manipulation. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were used to detect and(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Postoperative ileus is a poorly understood and common problem. We previously demonstrated an association between a suppression in jejunal circular muscle activity and a massive extravasation of leukocytes into the muscularis after surgical manipulation of the small bowel. This study was pursued to establish a direct causal link between(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS We have shown that intestinal manipulation leads to a significant inhibition of circular muscle contraction. We hypothesized that the inflammatory mediator inducible nitric oxide (NO) plays a role in surgically induced ileus. METHODS Rats and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) knockout and wild-type mice underwent a simple intestinal(More)
Hemorrhagic shock (HS) initiates an inflammatory cascade that includes the production of cytokines and recruitment of neutrophils (PMN) and may progress to organ failure, inducing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). To examine the hypothesis that interleukin-6 (IL-6) contributes to PMN infiltration and lung damage in HS, we examined the lungs of(More)
The basal presence of immunologically potent cells within the intestinal muscularis externa and their functional significance is unclear. Our aim was to investigate the basal distribution of various leukocyte populations within the rat jejunal muscularis. In addition, we sought to immunohistochemically phenotype the muscularis macrophage in jejunal(More)
Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a causative agent of sepsis-induced ileus. Although it is known that LPS activates macrophages and initiates inflammation, the consequences of LPS on the macrophage network and a potential inflammatory response within the intestinal muscularis have not been investigated. This study was designed to identify cellular and(More)
Cellular mechanisms of sepsis-induced ileus remain an enigma. The study aim was to determine the role of nitric oxide (NO) in mediating the suppression of rat jejunal circular smooth muscle activity during endotoxemia. Isolated muscularis inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA was measured by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry was employed to localize iNOS protein,(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess pancreatic fistula rate and secondary endpoints after pancreatogastrostomy (PG) versus pancreatojejunostomy (PJ) for reconstruction in pancreatoduodenectomy in the setting of a multicenter randomized controlled trial. BACKGROUND PJ and PG are established methods for reconstruction in pancreatoduodenectomy. Recent prospective trials(More)
As we have shown in the past, acute rejection-related TNF-α upregulation in resident macrophages in the tunica muscularis after small bowel transplantation (SBTx) results in local amplification of inflammation, decisively contributing to graft dysmotility. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of the(More)