Learn More
OBJECTIVE To investigate the pathophysiologic mechanisms that lead to ileus after abdominal surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA The common supposition is that more invasive operations are associated with a more extensive ileus. The cellular mechanisms of postsurgical ileus remain elusive, and few studies have addressed the mechanisms. METHODS Rats were(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS We have shown that intestinal manipulation leads to a significant inhibition of circular muscle contraction. We hypothesized that the inflammatory mediator inducible nitric oxide (NO) plays a role in surgically induced ileus. METHODS Rats and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) knockout and wild-type mice underwent a simple intestinal(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess pancreatic fistula rate and secondary endpoints after pancreatogastrostomy (PG) versus pancreatojejunostomy (PJ) for reconstruction in pancreatoduodenectomy in the setting of a multicenter randomized controlled trial. BACKGROUND PJ and PG are established methods for reconstruction in pancreatoduodenectomy. Recent prospective trials(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS This study demonstrates a significant role for cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and prostanoid production as mechanisms for surgically induced postoperative ileus. METHODS Rats, COX-2+/+, and COX-2-/- mice underwent simple intestinal manipulation. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were used to detect and(More)
The basal presence of immunologically potent cells within the intestinal muscularis externa and their functional significance is unclear. Our aim was to investigate the basal distribution of various leukocyte populations within the rat jejunal muscularis. In addition, we sought to immunohistochemically phenotype the muscularis macrophage in jejunal(More)
BACKGROUND Abdominal surgery results in neuronal mediator release and subsequent acute intestinal hypomotility. This phase is followed by a longer lasting inflammatory phase resulting in postoperative ileus (POI). Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has been shown to induce motility disturbances and in addition may be a candidate mediator to elicit(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Postoperative ileus is a poorly understood and common problem. We previously demonstrated an association between a suppression in jejunal circular muscle activity and a massive extravasation of leukocytes into the muscularis after surgical manipulation of the small bowel. This study was pursued to establish a direct causal link between(More)
Hemorrhagic shock (HS) initiates an inflammatory cascade that includes the production of cytokines and recruitment of neutrophils (PMN) and may progress to organ failure, inducing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). To examine the hypothesis that interleukin-6 (IL-6) contributes to PMN infiltration and lung damage in HS, we examined the lungs of(More)
BACKGROUND Surgical manipulation of the intestine results in the massive movement of leukocytes into the intestinal muscularis at 24 hours. This is associated with muscle inhibition. The aim of this study was to temporally associate leukocyte extravasation with ileus after surgical manipulation. METHODS Rats underwent a simple manipulation of the small(More)
PURPOSE Ischemia-reperfusion injury leads to impaired smooth muscle function and inflammatory reactions after intestinal transplantation. In previous studies, infliximab has been shown to effectively protect allogenic intestinal grafts in the early phase after transplantation with resulting improved contractility. This study was designed to reveal(More)