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Microvascular sequestration was assessed in the brains of 50 Thai and Vietnamese patients who died from severe malaria (Plasmodium falciparum, 49; P. vivax, 1). Malaria parasites were sequestered in 46 cases; in 3 intravascular malaria pigment but no parasites were evident; and in the P. vivax case there was no sequestration. Cerebrovascular endothelial(More)
BACKGROUND Plasmodium vivax is more common than P. falciparum as a cause of malaria in many parts of the tropics outside Africa. P. falciparum infection has harmful effects in pregnancy, but the effects of P. vivax have not been characterised. We investigated the effects of P. vivax infection during pregnancy. METHODS Since 1986, pregnant Karen women(More)
The multiplication rates and invasiveness of Plasmodium falciparum parasites isolated from adult Thai patients hospitalized with uncomplicated malaria (n=34) were compared with those from persons with severe malaria (n=42). To simulate severe malaria and control for host effects, the in vitro cultures were adjusted to 1% parasitemia and used the same red(More)
To characterize red cell susceptibility to invasion in malaria, a selectivity index (SI) was calculated as the ratio of observed number of multiple-infected red cells to that expected from a random process (Poisson distribution). In patients with falciparum malaria (n = 100) SI decreased with increasing parasitaemia (P < 0.001), and correlated inversely(More)
OBJECTIVE To construct a population pharmacokinetic model for mefloquine in the treatment of falciparum malaria. BACKGROUND Mefloquine is the treatment of choice for multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria. The factors that influence the pharmacokinetic properties of mefloquine in acute malaria are not well characterized. METHODS The pharmacokinetic(More)
The therapeutic responses to the eight most widely used antimalarial drugs were assessed in 207 adult patients with Plasmodium vivax malaria. This parasite does not cause marked sequestration, so parasite clearance can be used as a direct measure of antimalarial activity. The activities of these drugs in descending order were artesunate, artemether,(More)
The qinghaosu (artemisinin) group of drugs is the most important new class of antimalarials developed in the last fifty years. Although there has been no clinical evidence of neurotoxicity, an unusual pattern of damage to specific brain-stem nuclei has been reported in experimental animals receiving high doses of arteether or artemether. Detailed clinical(More)
Oral artesunate is the most effective treatment for uncomplicated hyperparasitaemia in falciparum malaria. To assess the contribution of mefloquine to therapeutic efficacy in an area endemic for mefloquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum, an open randomized comparison of a 5 d course of oral artesunate (total dose 12 mg/kg) with and without a single dose of(More)
Antimalarial resistance develops and spreads when spontaneously occurring mutant malaria parasites are selected by concentrations of antimalarial drug which are sufficient to eradicate the more sensitive parasites but not those with the resistance mutation(s). Mefloquine, a slowly eliminated quinoline-methanol compound, is the most widely used drug for the(More)
The safety of daily application of N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) (1.7 g of DEET/day) in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy was assessed as part of a double-blind, randomized, therapeutic trial of insect repellents for the prevention of malaria in pregnancy (n = 897). No adverse neurologic, gastrointestinal, or dermatologic effects were observed(More)