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IL-18 is a novel cytokine with pleiotropic activities critical to the development of T-helper 1 (Th1) responses. We detected IL-18 mRNA and protein within rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial tissues in significantly higher levels than in osteoarthritis controls. Similarly, IL-18 receptor expression was detected on synovial lymphocytes and macrophages.(More)
Interleukin (IL)-15 is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine that is expressed in several inflammatory disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and pulmonary inflammatory diseases. IL-15 promotes activation of T cells, neutrophils and macrophages, and is critical to dendritic cell function in several model systems. Recent emerging data suggest(More)
IL-18 expression and functional activity has been identified in several autoimmune and infectious diseases. To clarify the potential role of IL-18 during early innate immune responses, we have explored the capacity of IL-18 to activate neutrophils. Human peripheral blood-derived neutrophils constitutively expressed IL-18R (alpha and beta) commensurate with(More)
Understanding modulation of the host immune system by pathogens offers rich therapeutic potential. Parasitic filarial nematodes are often tolerated in human hosts for decades with little evidence of pathology and this appears to reflect parasite-induced suppression of host proinflammatory immune responses. Consistent with this, we have previously described(More)
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) exert favorable effects on lipoprotein metabolism, but may also possess anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, we explored the activities of simvastatin, a lipophilic statin, in a Th1-driven model of murine inflammatory arthritis. We report in this study that simvastatin markedly inhibited not(More)
OBJECTIVE In countries where parasitic infections are endemic, autoimmune disease is relatively rare, leading to the hypothesis that parasite-derived immunomodulators may protect against its development. Consistent with this, we have previously demonstrated that ES-62, a 62 kDa phosphorylcholine (PC)-containing glycoprotein that is secreted by filarial(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) comprise heterogeneous subsets of professional antigen-presenting cells, linking innate and adaptive immunity. Analysis of DC subsets has been hampered by a lack of specific DC markers and reliable quantitation assays. We characterised the immunophenotype and functional characteristics of psoriatic arthritis (PsA)-derived and(More)
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a key immunoregulatory cytokine which promotes cell-mediated immunity. Its influence on the humoral immune response is less clearly defined. In this study, the effect of systemic IL-12 treatment on the T cell-dependent humoral immune response in the rat was examined using an experimental system in which PVG-RT1u congenic rats were(More)
Interleukin (IL)-18 is an important mediator of innate and adaptive immunity. We searched for an association of IL-18 promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Caucasians. The entire study population was composed of two independent cohorts from Germany (n=200) and Scotland (n=410). Presence of IL-18 SNP at positions(More)
Targeting tumor necrosis factor-a has proven of considerable value in treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, with substantial benefits achieved in a proportion of treated patients. However, a significant number of patients do not achieve sufficient improvement and as a result there remains considerable unmet clinical need. A number of cytokines have recently(More)