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Human brain mechanisms of pain perception and regulation in health and disease
Placebo and nocebo effects are defined by opposite opioid and dopaminergic responses.
- D. Scott, C. Stohler, C. M. Egnatuk, Heng Wang, R. Koeppe, J. Zubieta
- Psychology, MedicineArchives of general psychiatry
- 1 February 2008
Placebo and nocebo effects are associated with opposite responses of DA and endogenous opioid neurotransmission in a distributed network of regions and form part of the circuit typically implicated in reward responses and motivated behavior.
COMT val158met Genotype Affects µ-Opioid Neurotransmitter Responses to a Pain Stressor
Individuals homozygous for themet158 allele of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphism showed diminished regional μ-opioid system responses to pain compared with heterozygotes, and these effects were accompanied by higher sensory and affective ratings of pain and a more negative internal affective state.
Placebo Effects Mediated by Endogenous Opioid Activity on μ-Opioid Receptors
Cognitive factors (e.g., expectation of pain relief) are capable of modulating physical and emotional states through the site-specific activation of μ-opioid receptor signaling in the human brain.
Individual Differences in Reward Responding Explain Placebo-Induced Expectations and Effects
Regional Mu Opioid Receptor Regulation of Sensory and Affective Dimensions of Pain
Sustained pain induced the regional release of endogenous opioids interacting with μ-opioid receptors in a number of cortical and subcortical brain regions, resulting in reductions in the sensory and affective ratings of the pain experience.
Placebo effects on human μ-opioid activity during pain
- T. Wager, D. Scott, J. Zubieta
- Psychology, BiologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- 26 June 2007
The results suggest that endogenous opioid release in core affective brain regions is an integral part of the mechanism whereby expectancies regulate affective and nociceptive circuits.
Cognitive function in euthymic Bipolar I Disorder
BDNF Val66Met Allele Is Associated with Reduced Hippocampal Volume in Healthy Subjects
Genetic variation in human NPY expression affects stress response and emotion
It is shown that haplotype-driven NPY expression predicts brain responses to emotional and stress challenges and also inversely correlates with trait anxiety, consistent with the function of NPY as an anxiolytic peptide and help to explain inter-individual variation in resiliency to stress.