Steroid 5 alpha-reductase 2 deficiency.
It is imperative to establish whether defects in steroid 5 alpha-reductase 2, perhaps in the heterozygous state, are responsible for a portion of cases of sporadic hypospadias, to determine whether 5alpha- reductase plays a role in progesterone action in women, and to elucidate the relation between androgen action and gender role behavior.
Androgen abuse by athletes.
- J. Wilson
- Biology, MedicineEndocrine reviews
- 1 May 1988
This particular form of drug abuse stems from the convergence of several separate misconceptions about the effects of androgen misuse on muscle mass and lean body weight.
Molecular genetics of steroid 5 alpha-reductase 2 deficiency.
Molecular analysis of the SRD5A2 gene resulted in the identification of 18 mutations in 11 homozygote, 6 compound heterozygotes, and 4 inferred compoundheterozygotes from 23 families with 5 alpha-reductase deficiency, suggesting that the carrier frequency of mutations in the 5alpha- reductase type 2 gene may be higher than previously thought.
Testosterone formation and metabolism during male sexual differentiation in the human embryo.
It was concluded that testosterone is the principal androgen formed by the fetal testis at the time of male sexual differentiation.
Characterization and expression of a cDNA encoding the human androgen receptor.
- W. Tilley, M. Marcelli, J. Wilson, M. McPhaul
- BiologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
Comparisons with the amino acid sequence of previously cloned steroid hormone receptors revealed a high degree of sequence conservation with the progesterone, glucocorticoid, and mineraloc Corticoid receptors in the putative hormone and DNA-binding domain regions.
Molecular genetics and pathophysiology of 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 deficiency.
- S. Andersson, W. Geissler, D. W. Russel
- Biology, MedicineJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
It is suggested that the common mechanism for testosterone formation in postpubertal subjects with this disorder is the conversion of circulating androstenedione to testosterone by one or more of the unaffected 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isoenzymes.
Testosterone at high concentrations interacts with the human androgen receptor similarly to dihydrotestosterone.
The results suggest that the weaker androgenic potency of testosterone compared to that of dihydrotestosterone resides in its weaker interaction with the androgen receptor, most clearly demonstrable as an increase in the dissociation rate of testosterone from the receptor.
Natural mutagenesis study of the human steroid 5 alpha-reductase 2 isozyme.
Nine additional mutations in the 5alpha-reductase 2 gene in subjects with 5 alpha- reductase deficiency are described, providing insight into functional domains in the protein as well as an unusual acidic pH optimum characteristic of the 5Alpha-Reductase type 2 isozyme.
Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of a combination of ipratropium plus albuterol compared with ipratropium alone and albuterol alone in COPD.
The inclusion of ipratropium in a pharmacologic treatment regimen is associated with a lower rate of exacerbations in COPD and lower total treatment costs and improved cost-effectiveness.