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Regulation of insulin secretion: role of mitochondrial signalling
It appears that the anaplerotic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase participates directly or indirectly in several metabolic pathways which are important for glucose-induced insulin secretion, including: the pyruVate/malate cycle, the py Kruvate/citrate cycle and glutamate-dehydrogenase-catalysed α-ketoglutarate production.
Molecular interactions of the IGF system.
Structure, mechanism and regulation of pyruvate carboxylase.
- S. Jitrapakdee, M. St. Maurice, I. Rayment, W. Cleland, J. Wallace, P. Attwood
- Biology, ChemistryBiochemical Journal
- 1 August 2008
The first cloning of the promoter of the PC gene in mammals and subsequent transcriptional studies reveal some key cognate transcription factors regulating tissue-specific expression, which offers some prospects for the study of this important enzyme.
The antibiotic and anticancer active aurein peptides from the Australian Bell Frogs Litoria aurea and Litoria raniformis the solution structure of aurein 1.2.
Seventeen aurein peptides are present in the secretion from the granular dorsal glands of the Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea, and 16 from the corresponding secretion of the related Southern Bellfrog L. raniformis: thirteen of these peptides show wide-spectrum antibiotic and anticancer activity.
Structural determinants for high-affinity binding of insulin-like growth factor II to insulin receptor (IR)-A, the exon 11 minus isoform of the IR.
It is shown that the C domain and, to a lesser extent, the D domains represent the principal determinants of the binding differences between IGF-I and IGF-II to IR-A, resulting in an affinity close to that of insulin for theIR-A.
Anaplerotic roles of pyruvate carboxylase in mammalian tissues
- S. Jitrapakdee, A. Vidal-Puig, J. Wallace
- BiologyCellular and Molecular Life Sciences (CMLS)
- 28 February 2006
Transcriptional studies of the PC gene pinpoint some transcription factors that determine tissue-specific expression, suggesting that PC is involved in the metabolic switch controlling fuel partitioning toward lipogenesis.
Novel recombinant fusion protein analogues of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I indicate the relative importance of IGF-binding protein and receptor binding for enhanced biological potency.
Investigation of receptor and IGFBP association by these analogues reinforced the previous findings that N-terminal analogues of IGF-I show increased biological potency due to changes in the degree of their IGFBP interactions.
Structure, function and regulation of pyruvate carboxylase.
Different physiological conditions, including diabetes, hyperthyroidism, genetic obesity and postnatal development, increase the level of PC expression through transcriptional and translational mechanisms, whereas insulin inhibits PC expression.
Differential Activation of Insulin Receptor Substrates 1 and 2 by Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Activated Insulin Receptors
It is found that IGF-I can function through both splice variants of the IR, in spite of low affinity, to specifically activate IRS-2 to levels similar to those seen with equivalent concentrations of insulin or IGF-II.
opaque-2 modifiers increase gamma-zein synthesis and alter its spatial distribution in maize endosperm.
- K. Geetha, C. Lending, M. A. Lopes, J. Wallace, B. Larkins
- Medicine, BiologyThe Plant cell
- 1 November 1991
The authors' studies show that opaque-2 modifiers are semidominant genes, resulting in a twofold to threefold increase in gamma-zein gene expression in both opaque- 2 and normal genetic backgrounds, which appears to be a consequence of enhanced mRNA transcription or stability rather than gene amplification.