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Phylogenomics Revives Traditional Views on Deep Animal Relationships
TLDR
It is shown that the sponges (Porifera) are monophyletic and not paraphyletic as repeatedly proposed, thus undermining the idea that ancestral metazoans had a sponge-like body plan and that the most likely position for the ctenophores is together with the cnidarians in a "coelenterate" clade.
Molecular phylogeny of Demospongiae: implications for classification and scenarios of character evolution.
TLDR
The topology derived from molecular data provides a basis for proposing a new classification of Demospongiae s.s., and suggests a reverse polarity of some characters, with respect to traditional conceptions: viviparity, presence of monaxon spicules and of spongin appear to be ancestral, whereas ovip parity, and presence of tetraxon spicule appear as derived characters.
Assessing the complex sponge microbiota: core, variable and species-specific bacterial communities in marine sponges
TLDR
This global analysis represents the most comprehensive study of bacterial symbionts in sponges to date and provides novel insights into the complex structure of these unique associations.
ELECTRON MICROSCOPE STUDY OF THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SOME SPONGES AND BACTERIA
TLDR
An electron microscope study of 11 species of demosponges and of two species of calcareous sponges has shown the general occurrence of associated bacteria, usually extracellular, but intracellular in Petrosia ficiformis.
Sponge paraphyly and the origin of Metazoa
TLDR
The polymerase chain reaction is used to amplify almost the entire nucleic acid sequence of the 18S rDNA from several hexactinellid, demosponge and calcareous sponge species to suggest that sponges are paraphyletic, the Calcarea being more related to monophyletic Eumetazoa than to the siliceous spongees.
Global Diversity of Sponges (Porifera)
TLDR
Results obtained demonstrate that regional approaches to analytical biogeography are at present more likely to achieve insights into the biogeographic history of sponges than a global perspective, which appears currently too ambitious.
Deep metazoan phylogeny: when different genes tell different stories.
TLDR
The accuracy of phylogenetic inference may be substantially improved by selecting genes that evolve slowly across the Metazoa and applying more realistic substitution models, as well as modifying gene sampling and the taxonomic composition of the outgroup.
Carbon isotope records from extant Caribbean and South Pacific sponges: Evolution of δ13C in surface water DIC
Stable isotope records of demosponges from the Caribbean and Coral Sea are described for the purpose of studying the influence of fossil fuel CO2 on the carbon isotopic composition of dissolved
Transplantation of marine sponges to different conditions of light and current
TLDR
Transplantation was employed to determine how marine sponges grow in different in situ conditions of light and current, and significant morphological differences were observed in sponge grown under different environmental conditions.
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