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Subregion- and Cell Type–Restricted Gene Knockout in Mouse Brain
Genetic enhancement of learning and memory in mice
It is shown that overexpression ofNMDA receptor 2B (NR2B) in the forebrains of transgenic mice leads to enhanced activation of NMDA receptors, facilitating synaptic potentiation in response to stimulation at 10–100 Hz, suggesting that genetic enhancement of mental and cognitive attributes such as intelligence and memory in mammals is feasible.
The Essential Role of Hippocampal CA1 NMDA Receptor–Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in Spatial Memory
A chemical switch for inhibitor-sensitive alleles of any protein kinase
A chemical genetic strategy for sensitizing protein kinases to cell-permeable molecules that do not inhibit wild-type kinases is described, allowing for rapid functional characterization of members of this important gene family.
Enrichment induces structural changes and recovery from nonspatial memory deficits in CA1 NMDAR1-knockout mice
- C. Rampon, Ya-ping Tang, J. Goodhouse, E. Shimizu, M. Kyin, J. Tsien
- Biology, PsychologyNature Neuroscience
- 1 March 2000
It is found that enrichment induced an increase of the synapse density in the CA1 region in knockouts as well as control littermates, which indicates that CA1 NMDA receptor activity is critical in hippocampus-dependent nonspatial memory, but is not essential for experience-induced synaptic structural changes.
Effects of environmental enrichment on gene expression in the brain.
- C. Rampon, C. Jiang, Y. Hu
- Biology, PsychologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 7 November 2000
expression of a large number of genes changes in response to enrichment training, many of which can be linked to neuronal structure, synaptic plasticity, and transmission and may play important roles in modulating learning and memory capacity.
Impaired Hippocampal Representation of Space in CA1-Specific NMDAR1 Knockout Mice
NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic reinforcement as a crucial process for memory consolidation.
The data indicate that memory consolidation depends on the reactivation of the NMDA receptor, possibly to reinforce site-specific synaptic modifications to consolidate memory traces and serve as a cellular means by which the new memory is transferred from the hippocampus to the cortex for permanent storage.
Transgenerational induction of defences in animals and plants
60 NATURE | VOL 401 | 2 SEPTEMBER 1999 | www.nature.com reduces the already slim likelihood that the non-occurrence of therians before ,110 Myr is due to a preservational/sampling artefact. Finally,…
Acquired deficit of forebrain glucocorticoid receptor produces depression-like changes in adrenal axis regulation and behavior.
- Maureen P. Boyle, J. Brewer, L. Muglia
- Psychology, BiologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 11 January 2005
It is suggested that imipramine's proposed activities on forebrain GR function are not essential for its antidepressant effects, and that alteration in GR expression may play a causative role in disease onset of major depressive disorder.