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The androgen receptor in prostate cancer.
TLDR
The androgen receptor is a member of the family of nuclear receptors that is able to regulate a specific expression of target genes and is expressed at high levels in male reproductive tissues. Expand
Identification of Two Transcription Activation Units in the N-terminal Domain of the Human Androgen Receptor (*)
TLDR
The data presented show that the size and location of the active TAU in the human AR is variable, being dependent on the promoter context and the presence or absence of the ligand binding domain. Expand
A mutation in the ligand binding domain of the androgen receptor of human LNCaP cells affects steroid binding characteristics and response to anti-androgens.
TLDR
In the LNCaP androgen receptor a single point mutation is discovered changing the sense of codon 868 (Thr to Ala) in the ligand binding domain, which influences both binding and the induction of gene expression by different steroids and antisteroids. Expand
Domains of the human androgen receptor involved in steroid binding, transcriptional activation, and subcellular localization.
TLDR
A series of human androgen receptor (AR) deletion mutants was constructed to study the relationship between the structural domains and their different functions in the AR protein, indicating that in the absence of hormone this domain displays an inhibitory function. Expand
An androgen response element in a far upstream enhancer region is essential for high, androgen-regulated activity of the prostate-specific antigen promoter.
TLDR
Transfection experiments in prostate and nonprostate cell lines showed largely LNCaP cell specificity of the upstream enhancer region, although some activity was found in the T47D mammary tumor cell line. Expand
Androgen receptor gene amplification: a possible molecular mechanism for androgen deprivation therapy failure in prostate cancer.
TLDR
Failure of conventional androgen deprivation therapy in prostate cancer may be caused by a clonal expansion of tumor cells that are able to continue androgen-dependent growth despite of the low concentrations of serum androgens. Expand
Androgen receptor activation in prostatic tumor cell lines by insulin-like growth factor-I, keratinocyte growth factor, and epidermal growth factor.
TLDR
Investigation of effects of growth factors on stimulation of the AR-mediated gene transcription in human prostatic tumor cell lines provides evidence that IGF-I, KGF, and EGF directly activate the AR in the absence of androgens, which means that the androgen-signaling chain may be activated by growth factors in an androgens-depleted environment. Expand
Androgen receptor activation in prostatic tumor cell lines by insulin-like growth factor-I, keratinocyte growth factor and epidermal growth factor.
TLDR
Investigation of effects of growth factors on stimulation of the AR-mediated gene transcription in human prostatic tumor cell lines provides evidence that IGF-I, KGF, and EGF directly activate the AR in the absence of androgens, which means that the androgen-signaling chain may be activated by growth factors in an androgens-depleted environment. Expand
Two Androgen Response Regions Cooperate in Steroid Hormone Regulated Activity of the Prostate-specific Antigen Promoter (*)
TLDR
Both the AR and glucocorticoid receptor were 20-100-fold more active on AR-PSA and ARR-thymidine kinase promoter constructs in LNCaP cells than in other cell types, indicating (prostate) cell specificity. Expand
Mechanisms of androgen receptor activation and function
TLDR
Recent evidence strongly supports a ligand dependent functional interaction between the ligand-binding domain and the NH2-terminal transactivating domain of the androgen receptor. Expand
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