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The inflammasome NLRs in immunity, inflammation, and associated diseases.
Determining exactly how the inflammasome is activated in these diseases and disease models remains a challenge, and a review presents and integrates recent progress in the field.
Fatty acid–induced NLRP3-ASC inflammasome activation interferes with insulin signaling
It is shown that the saturated fatty acid palmitate, but not unsaturated oleate, induces the activation of the NLRP3-ASC inflammasome, causing caspase-1, IL-1β and IL-18 production, which affects insulin sensitivity through tumor necrosis factor–independent and dependent pathways.
Inflammasomes: mechanism of action, role in disease, and therapeutics
Increasing evidence in mouse models strongly implicates an involvement of the inflammasome in the initiation or progression of diseases with a high impact on public health, such as metabolic disorders and neurodegenerative diseases.
The NLRP3 inflammasome: molecular activation and regulation to therapeutics
The NLRP3 inflammasome mediates pro-inflammatory responses and pyroptotic cell death and how it is being targeted to treat inflammatory diseases is described.
DJ-1, a cancer- and Parkinson's disease-associated protein, stabilizes the antioxidant transcriptional master regulator Nrf2
- C. Clements, R. S. McNally, Brian J. Conti, T. Mak, J. Ting
- BiologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- 10 October 2006
It is found that loss of DJ-1 leads to deficits in NQO1 [NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1], a detoxification enzyme, attributed to a loss of Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor), a master regulator of antioxidant transcriptional responses.
The NLRP3 inflammasome mediates in vivo innate immunity to influenza A virus through recognition of viral RNA.
TNF alpha promotes proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitors and remyelination.
Analysis of mice lacking TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1 or TNFR2) indicated thatTNFR2, not TNFR1, is critical to oligodendrocyte regeneration, and this unexpected reparative role for TNF alpha in the CNS is important for understanding oligod endocrine regeneration/proliferation, nerve remyelination and the design of new therapeutics for demyelinating diseases.
The NLRP3 inflammasome functions as a negative regulator of tumorigenesis during colitis-associated cancer
- I. C. Allen, Erin McElvania Tekippe, J. Ting
- Medicine, BiologyThe Journal of experimental medicine
- 10 May 2010
Bone marrow reconstitution experiments show that Nlrp3 gene expression and function in hematopoietic cells, rather than intestinal epithelial cells or stromal cells, is responsible for protection against increased tumorigenesis, suggesting that the inflammasome functions as an attenuator of colitis and CAC.
NLRX1 is a regulator of mitochondrial antiviral immunity
This work identifies NLRX1 as a check against mitochondrial antiviral responses and represents an intersection of three ancient cellular processes: NLR signalling, intracellular virus detection and the use of mitochondria as a platform for anti-pathogen signalling.