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Pollination Syndromes and Floral Specialization
It is shown that pollination syndromes provide great utility in understanding the mechanisms of floral diversification and the importance of organizing pollinators into functional groups according to presumed similarities in the selection pressures they exert.
Flower Constancy, Insect Psychology, and Plant Evolution
The way in which floral parameters, such as interplant distances, nectar rewards, flower morphology, and floral color affect constancy is considered, and the implications of pollinator constancy for plant evolution are discussed.
Plight of the bumble bee: Pathogen spillover from commercial to wild populations
Untangling Multiple Factors in Spatial Distributions: Lilies, Gophers, and Rocks
It is hypothesized that seed germination is higher in less rocky areas of deeper, moister soil than in the rocky areas where most seeds land, but that seedlings seldom reach maturity unless they are in a rocky refuge from predation, and results from path analysis are consistent with this hypothesis.
Evolutionary Options for Maximizing Pollen Dispersal of Animal-Pollinated Plants
On the average, nectar-collecting bumble bees deposited 0.6% of the pollen removed from the flowers of Erythronium grandiflorum (Liliaceae) onto the stigmas of subsequently visited flowers. Because…
An examination of synchrony between insect emergence and flowering in Rocky Mountain meadows
Using a reciprocal transplant experiment with nesting bees, it is confirmed that local environmental conditions are the primary determinants of emergence phenology, and pollinators are typically collected at flowers.
A multivariate search for pollination syndromes among penstemons
The overarching pattern was that hummingbird syndrome characterizations were successful at predicting pollination by hummingbirds versus Hymenoptera, two types of animals that are profoundly different, but less successful at predicted visitation by one kind of bee versus another.
Pollen Transport and Deposition by Bumble Bees in Erythronium: Influences of Floral Nectar and Bee Grooming
- J. Thomson
- 15 April 1986
The transport of pollen from donor flowers by bumble bees was measured by examining deposition on stigmata of sequences of recipient flowers, and pollen carryover in E. grandiflorum was similar in carryover, but Linaria vulgaris showed much higher carryover.
The Natural History of Bumblebees: A Sourcebook for Investigations
Can insects be charming? Even people who generally dislike 'bugs' make exceptions for bumblebees. Their bright colours and intriguing behaviours can engage the curiosity of anyone from schoolchildren…
‘Anti‐bee’ and ‘pro‐bird’ changes during the evolution of hummingbird pollination in Penstemon flowers
Results suggest that, apart from ‘pro‐bird' adaptations, specific ‘anti‐bee’ adaptations have been important in shaping hummingbird‐flowers.