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Workaholism: definition, measurement, and preliminary results.
Questionnaires were developed to assess the concept of workaholism, defined in terms of high scores on measures of work involvement and driveness and low scores on a measure of enjoyment of work, andExpand
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  • 139
Masculinity & femininity: Their psychological dimensions, correlates, and antecedents
Preface 1. Gender, Sex Roles, and the Psychological Dimensions of Masculinity and Femininity 2. Previous Research and Overview of the Study 3. Measuring Instruments 4. Sample Characteristics andExpand
  • 1,848
  • 76
Negative and positive components of psychological masculinity and femininity and their relationships to self-reports of neurotic and acting out behaviors.
Negatively valued masculinity (M-) and femininity (F-) personality scales were developed to supplement the positively valued Masculinity (M+) and Femininity (F+) scales of the Personal AttributesExpand
  • 499
  • 37
Ratings of self and peers on sex role attributes and their relation to self-esteem and conceptions of masculinity and femininity.
Male (N = 248) and female (N = 282) subjects were given the Personal Attributes Questionnaire consisting of 55 bipolar attributes drawn from the Sex Role Stereotype Questionnaire by Rosenkrantz,Expand
  • 1,606
  • 35
A short version of the Attitudes toward Women Scale (AWS)
A short (25-item) version of the Spence-Helmreich (1972) Attitudes toward Women Scale (AWS) is presented. Correlations between scores on the short and the full (55-item) version for groups of maleExpand
  • 948
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Gender-related traits and gender ideology: evidence for a multifactorial theory.
  • J. T. Spence
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1993
Male (n = 95) and female (n = 221) college students were given 2 measures of gender-related personality traits, the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire, and 3Expand
  • 230
  • 26
The Attitudes Toward Women Scale and Attitude Change in College Students
To determine cohort changes in gender-role attitudes, responses to the 15-item form of the Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS; Spence & Helmreich, 1972a, 1978) were compared for students at the sameExpand
  • 296
  • 24
Instrumental and Expressive Traits, Trait Stereotypes, and Sexist Attitudes: What Do They Signify?
College students rated the typical male and female student and themselves on 22 instrumental (I) and 16 expressive (E) items from the PAQ (Spence & Helmreich, 1978) and the BSRI (Bem, 1974), as wellExpand
  • 441
  • 21
Masculinity, femininity, and gender-related traits: a conceptual analysis and critique of current research.
  • J. T. Spence
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Progress in experimental personality research
  • 1984
Publisher Summary The research employing the Bern Sex Role Inventory (BSRI), Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ), and other instruments containing separate M and F scales has fundamentally beenExpand
  • 276
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