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Pre-Bötzinger complex: a brainstem region that may generate respiratory rhythm in mammals.
The location of neurons generating the rhythm of breathing in mammals is unknown. By microsection of the neonatal rat brainstem in vitro, a limited region of the ventral medulla (the pre-BötzingerExpand
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Models of respiratory rhythm generation in the pre-Bötzinger complex. I. Bursting pacemaker neurons.
A network of oscillatory bursting neurons with excitatory coupling is hypothesized to define the primary kernel for respiratory rhythm generation in the pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC) in mammals.Expand
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Spatial and functional architecture of the mammalian brain stem respiratory network: a hierarchy of three oscillatory mechanisms.
Mammalian central pattern generators (CPGs) producing rhythmic movements exhibit extremely robust and flexible behavior. Network architectures that enable these features are not well understood. HereExpand
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Persistent sodium current, membrane properties and bursting behavior of pre-bötzinger complex inspiratory neurons in vitro.
We measured persistent Na(+) current and membrane properties of bursting-pacemaker and nonbursting inspiratory neurons of the neonatal rat pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC) in brain stem sliceExpand
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Abdominal expiratory activity in the rat brainstem–spinal cord in situ: patterns, origins and implications for respiratory rhythm generation
We studied respiratory neural activity generated during expiration. Motoneuronal activity was recorded simultaneously from abdominal (AbN), phrenic (PN), hypoglossal (HN) and central vagus nervesExpand
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Models of respiratory rhythm generation in the pre-Bötzinger complex. II. Populations Of coupled pacemaker neurons.
We have proposed models for the ionic basis of oscillatory bursting of respiratory pacemaker neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex. In this paper, we investigate the frequency control andExpand
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Neuronal pacemaker for breathing visualized in vitro
Breathing movements in mammals arise from a rhythmic pattern of neural activity, thought to originate in the pre-Bötzinger complex in the lower brainstem. The mechanisms generating the neural rhythmExpand
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Neural mechanisms generating respiratory pattern in mammalian brain stem-spinal cord in vitro. I. Spatiotemporal patterns of motor and medullary neuron activity.
1. An analysis of the spatial and temporal patterns of activity of neurons of the respiratory motor-pattern generation system in an in vitro neonatal rat brain stem-spinal cord preparation isExpand
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Raphé Neurons Stimulate Respiratory Circuit Activity by Multiple Mechanisms via Endogenously Released Serotonin and Substance P
Brainstem serotonin (5-HT) neurons modulate activity of many neural circuits in the mammalian brain, but in many cases endogenous mechanisms have not been resolved. Here, we analyzed actions of raphéExpand
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Generation and transmission of respiratory oscillations in medullary slices: role of excitatory amino acids.
1. The involvement of excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors in the generation of respiratory rhythm and transmission of inspiratory drive to hypoglossal (XII) motoneurons was examined in an in vitroExpand
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