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Reduced Number of Hypocretin Neurons in Human Narcolepsy
Murine and canine narcolepsy can be caused by mutations of the hypocretin (Hcrt) (orexin) precursor or Hcrt receptor genes. In contrast to these animal models, most human narcolepsy is not familial,Expand
Clues to the functions of mammalian sleep
  • J. Siegel
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Nature
  • 26 October 2005
The functions of mammalian sleep remain unclear. Most theories suggest a role for non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in energy conservation and in nervous system recuperation. Theories of REM sleepExpand
Behavioral Correlates of Activity in Identified Hypocretin/Orexin Neurons
Micropipette recording with juxtacellular Neurobiotin ejection, linked micropipette-microwire recording, and antidromic and orthodromic activation from the ventral tegmental area and locus coeruleusExpand
Do all animals sleep?
  • J. Siegel
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Trends in Neurosciences
  • 1 April 2008
Some animals never exhibit a state that meets the behavioral definition of sleep. Others suspend or greatly reduce 'sleep' behavior for many weeks during the postpartum period or during seasonalExpand
Hypocretin (orexin) cell loss in Parkinson's disease.
It has recently been reported that Parkinson's disease (PD) is preceded and accompanied by daytime sleep attacks, nocturnal insomnia, REM sleep behaviour disorder, hallucinations and depression,Expand
Natural Sleep and Its Seasonal Variations in Three Pre-industrial Societies
How did humans sleep before the modern era? Because the tools to measure sleep under natural conditions were developed long after the invention of the electric devices suspected of delaying andExpand
Although continued total sleep deprivation is fatal, the function of sleep remains a mystery. Shorter durations of sleep deprivation are followed by rebound increases in non-rapid eye movementExpand
The REM Sleep-Memory Consolidation Hypothesis
  • J. Siegel
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Science
  • 2 November 2001
It has been hypothesized that REM (rapid eye movement) sleep has an important role in memory consolidation. The evidence for this hypothesis is reviewed and found to be weak and contradictory. AnimalExpand
Cetacean sleep: An unusual form of mammalian sleep
Our knowledge of the form of lateralized sleep behavior, known as unihemispheric slow wave sleep (USWS), seen in all members of the order Cetacea examined to date, is described. We trace theExpand
Sleep viewed as a state of adaptive inactivity
  • J. Siegel
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Nature Reviews Neuroscience
  • 1 October 2009
Sleep is often viewed as a vulnerable state that is incompatible with behaviours that nourish and propagate species. This has led to the hypothesis that sleep has survived because it fulfills someExpand