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On gauge invariance and vacuum polarization
This paper is based on the elementary remark that the extraction of gauge invariant results from a formally gauge invariant theory is ensured if one employs methods of solution that involve onlyExpand
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Brownian Motion of a Quantum Oscillator
An action principle technique for the direct computation of expectation values is described and illustrated in detail by a special physical example, the effect on an oscillator of another physicalExpand
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  • PDF
On Angular Momentum
The commutation relations of an arbitrary angular momentum vector can be reduced to those of the harmonic oscillator. This provides a powerful method for constructing and developing the properties ofExpand
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Particles, Sources and Fields
Electrodynamics * Two-Particle Interactions. Non-relativistic Discussion * Two-Particle Interactions. Relativistic Theory I * Two-Particle Interactions. Relativistic Theory II * Photon PropagationExpand
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  • J. Schwinger
  • Physics, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
  • 1 April 1960
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Gauge Invariance and Mass
It is argued that the gauge invariance of a vector field does not necessarily imply zero mass for an associated particle if the current vector coupling is sufficiently strong. This situation mayExpand
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The Theory of Quantized Fields. I
The conventional correspondence basis for quantum dynamics is here replaced by a self-contained quantum dynamical principle from which the equations of motion and the commutation relations can beExpand
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