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Pseudoreplication is a pseudoproblem.
The authors argue that the core ideas behind pseudoreplication are based on a misunderstanding of statistical independence, the nature of control groups in science, and contexts of statistical inference.
Increased Costs of Cooperation Help Cooperators in the Long Run
How harsh environments select for cooperative phenotypes is demonstrated and an explanation for the adoption of cooperative breeding strategies in human evolution is suggested and the importance of variable population size and the role of socio-spatial organization in harsh environments is highlighted.
An Agent-Based Model of Social Identity Dynamics
An agent-based model in which agents adopted a social group based on an optimal group size preference was developed, and it was shown that the assumptions of optimal distinctiveness theory do not lead to individually satisfactory outcomes when all individuals share the same social environment.
Snake Species Discrimination by Wild Bonnet Macaques (Macaca radiata)
Age differences in behavior suggest that, with the exception of the python, repeated experience with snakes in the wild moderates excitability, consistent with the likely threat of envenomation.
Beyond reductionism: Refocusing on the individual with individual-based modeling
It is argued that individual organisms do hold a special place in the authors' world and can be integrated into a deeper understanding of the complex behavior of individual organisms.
Generative Entrenchment, Modularity and Evolvability: When Genic Selection meets the Whole Organism 1
Generative Entrenchment, Modularity and Evolvability: When Genic Selection meets the Whole Organism W. C. Wimsatt Department of Philosophy, Committee on the Conceptual Foundations of Science, and the
Do human menstrual-cycle pheromones exist?
Research over the past 15 years indicates, contrary to earlier results, that women do not synchronize their menstrual cycles, and it follows that that there are no pheromones that modulate the length of menstrual cycles.
Do Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) synchronize their estrous cycles?
  • J. Schank
  • Biology, Psychology
    Physiology & Behavior
  • 28 February 2001
Self-organized huddles of rat pups modeled by simple rules of individual behavior.
It is shown that the behavior of the model and of actual rat pups compare very favorably, demonstrating that the aggregative feature of huddling can emerge from the local sensorimotor interactions of individuals, and that complex group regulatory behaviors in infant rats may also emerge from self-organizing processes.