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Plasma membrane channels formed by connexins: their regulation and functions.
Members of the connexin gene family are integral membrane proteins that form hexamers called connexons. Most cells express two or more connexins. Open connexons found at the nonjunctional plasmaExpand
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Metabolic inhibition induces opening of unapposed connexin 43 gap junction hemichannels and reduces gap junctional communication in cortical astrocytes in culture
Rat cortical astrocytes in pure culture are functionally coupled to neighboring cells via connexin (Cx) 43 gap junctions under ordinary conditions. Small fluorescent molecules such as Lucifer yellowExpand
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Cx43 Hemichannels and Gap Junction Channels in Astrocytes Are Regulated Oppositely by Proinflammatory Cytokines Released from Activated Microglia
Astrocytes have a role in maintaining normal neuronal functions, some of which depend on connexins, protein subunits of gap junction channels and hemichannels. Under inflammatory conditions,Expand
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Gating and regulation of connexin 43 (Cx43) hemichannels
Connexin 43 (Cx43) nonjunctional or “unapposed” hemichannels can open under physiological or pathological conditions. We characterize hemichannels comprised of Cx43 or Cx43-EGFP (Cx43 with enhancedExpand
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Gap junctions: New tools, new answers, new questions
The big news is that gap junctions of different kinds are formed by a number of homologous proteins termed connexins, which are encoded by a gene family. Specific connexins are expressed in more thanExpand
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Cell-, age- and stage-dependent distribution of connexin43 gap junctions in testes.
Immunocytochemical data demonstrate that the distribution of gap junction connexin43 (Cx43) in rodent testes is dependent on cell type, testis maturation, and stage of the mature seminiferousExpand
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S-nitrosylation and permeation through connexin 43 hemichannels in astrocytes: induction by oxidant stress and reversal by reducing agents.
Marked increase in cell permeability ascribed to open connexin (Cx)43 hemichannels is induced by metabolic inhibition (MI) of cortical astrocytes in culture, but the molecular mechanisms are notExpand
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Hepatocyte gap junctions are permeable to the second messenger, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and to calcium ions.
Hepatocytes are well coupled by gap junctions, which allow the diffusion of small molecules between cells. Although gap junctions in many tissues are permeable to molecules larger than cAMP and inExpand
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Connexin-based gap junction hemichannels: gating mechanisms.
Connexins (Cxs) form hemichannels and gap junction channels. Each gap junction channel is composed of two hemichannels, also termed connexons, one from each of the coupled cells. Hemichannels areExpand
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New roles for astrocytes: Gap junction hemichannels have something to communicate
Gap junctions are clusters of aqueous channels that connect the cytoplasm of adjoining cells. Each cell contributes a hemichannel, or connexon, to each cell-cell channel. The cell-cell channels areExpand
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