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Scaleable Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Structures in Nanometer CMOS Technology
Single-photon avalanche photodiodes (SPADs) operating in Geiger mode offer exceptional time resolution and optical sensitivity. Implementation in modern nanometer-scale complementaryExpand
A Time-Resolved, Low-Noise Single-Photon Image Sensor Fabricated in Deep-Submicron CMOS Technology
The target application for this sensor is time-resolved imaging, in particular fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and 3D imaging, and the characterization shows the suitability of the proposed sensor technology for these applications. Expand
A 32×32 50ps resolution 10 bit time to digital converter array in 130nm CMOS for time correlated imaging
The resulting time correlated pixel array is a viable candidate for single photon counting (TCSPC) applications such as fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), nuclear or 3D imaging and permits scaling to larger array formats. Expand
Low Dark Count Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Structure Compatible With Standard Nanometer Scale CMOS Technology
A single-photon avalanche diode structure implemented in a 130-nm imaging process is reported. The device employs a p-well anode, rather than the commonly adopted p+, and a novel guard ringExpand
A 160×128 single-photon image sensor with on-pixel 55ps 10b time-to-digital converter
This work states that the introduction of SPAD devices in deep-submicron CMOS has enabled the design of massively parallel arrays where the entire photon detection and ToA circuitry is integrated on-pixel. Expand
Real-time fluorescence lifetime imaging system with a 32 x 32 0.13microm CMOS low dark-count single-photon avalanche diode array.
The dynamic range and accuracy of calculated lifetimes of this new camera is suitable for widefield FLIM applications by imaging a variety of test samples, including various standard fluorophores covering a lifetime range from 1.6ns to 16ns, microfluidic mixing of fluorophore solutions, and living fungal spores of Neurospora Crassa. Expand
A low-noise single-photon detector implemented in a 130 nm CMOS imaging process
We report on a new single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) fabricated in a 130 nm CMOS imaging process. A novel circular structure combining shallow trench isolation (STI) and a passivation implantExpand
A High-Throughput Time-Resolved Mini-Silicon Photomultiplier With Embedded Fluorescence Lifetime Estimation in 0.13 $\mu$m CMOS
The sensor is demonstrated in a practical laboratory environment with measurements of a variety of fluorescent dyes with different single exponential lifetimes, successfully showing the sensor's ability to overcome the classic pile-up limitation of time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) by over an order of magnitude. Expand
A parallel 32×32 time-to-digital converter array fabricated in a 130 nm imaging CMOS technology
The characteristics of the array make it an excellent candidate for in-pixel TDC in time-resolved imagers for applications such as 3-D imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). Expand
A 3×3, 5µm pitch, 3-transistor single photon avalanche diode array with integrated 11V bias generation in 90nm CMOS technology
A 3×3 prototype image sensor array consisting of 2µm diameter CMOS avalanche photodiodes with 3-transistor NMOS pixel circuitry is integrated in a 90nm CMOS image sensor technology. The 5µm pixelExpand