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Kinase-Dead BRAF and Oncogenic RAS Cooperate to Drive Tumor Progression through CRAF
Summary We describe a mechanism of tumorigenesis mediated by kinase-dead BRAF in the presence of oncogenic RAS. We show that drugs that selectively inhibit BRAF drive RAS-dependent BRAF binding toExpand
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Triple-negative breast cancer.
Triple-negative breast cancer, so called because it lacks expression of the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2, is often, but not always, a basal-like breast cancer. This reviewExpand
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The landscape of cancer genes and mutational processes in breast cancer
All cancers carry somatic mutations in their genomes. A subset, known as driver mutations, confer clonal selective advantage on cancer cells and are causally implicated in oncogenesis, and theExpand
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The evaluation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in breast cancer: recommendations by an International TILs Working Group 2014.
BACKGROUND The morphological evaluation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in breast cancer (BC) is gaining momentum as evidence strengthens for the clinical relevance of this immunologicalExpand
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Basal-like breast cancer: a critical review.
Recent gene expression profiling of breast cancer has identified specific subtypes with clinical, biologic, and therapeutic implications. The basal-like group of tumors is characterized by anExpand
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FGFR1 amplification drives endocrine therapy resistance and is a therapeutic target in breast cancer.
Amplification of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) occurs in approximately 10% of breast cancers and is associated with poor prognosis. However, it is uncertain whether overexpression ofExpand
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Gene expression profiling in breast cancer: classification, prognostication, and prediction
Microarray-based gene expression profiling has had a major effect on our understanding of breast cancer. Breast cancer is now perceived as a heterogeneous group of different diseases characterised byExpand
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Triple negative tumours: a critical review
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that encompasses several distinct entities with remarkably different biological characteristics and clinical behaviour. Currently, breast cancer patients areExpand
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BRCA1 dysfunction in sporadic basal-like breast cancer
Basal-like breast cancers form a distinct subtype of breast cancer characterized by the expression of markers expressed in normal basal/myoepithelial cells. Breast cancers arising in carriers ofExpand
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Breast cancer prognostic classification in the molecular era: the role of histological grade
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with varied morphological appearances, molecular features, behavior, and response to therapy. Current routine clinical management of breast cancer relies onExpand
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