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Lignin biosynthesis.
The lignin biosynthetic pathway has been studied for more than a century but has undergone major revisions over the past decade. Significant progress has been made in cloning new genes by genetic andExpand
Lignin Biosynthesis and Structure1
Lignin is the generic term for a large group of aromatic polymers resulting from the oxidative combinatorial coupling of 4-hydroxyphenylpropanoids ([Boerjan et al., 2003][1]; [Ralph et al.,Expand
Lignins: Natural polymers from oxidative coupling of 4-hydroxyphenyl- propanoids
AbstractLignins are complex natural polymers resulting from oxidative coupling of, primarily, 4-hydroxyphenylpropanoids. An understanding of their nature is evolving as a result of detailedExpand
Repression of lignin biosynthesis promotes cellulose accumulation and growth in transgenic trees
Because lignin limits the use of wood for fiber, chemical, and energy production, strategies for its downregulation are of considerable interest. We have produced transgenic aspen (PopulusExpand
Combinatorial modification of multiple lignin traits in trees through multigene cotransformation
Lignin quantity and reactivity [which is associated with its syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) constituent ratio] are two major barriers to wood-pulp production. To verify our contention that these traits areExpand
Molecular Phenotyping of the pal1 and pal2 Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana Reveals Far-Reaching Consequences on Phenylpropanoid, Amino Acid, and Carbohydrate Metabolism
The first enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, Phe ammonia-lyase (PAL), is encoded by four genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Whereas PAL function is well established in various plants, an insight intoExpand
Solution-state 2D NMR of ball-milled plant cell wall gels in DMSO-d(6)/pyridine-d(5).
  • Hoon Kim, J. Ralph
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Organic & biomolecular chemistry
  • 20 January 2010
NMR fingerprinting of the components of finely divided plant cell walls swelled in DMSO has been recently described. Cell wall gels, produced directly in the NMR tube withExpand
Pyrolysis-GC-MS characterization of forage materials
Pyrolysis-GC-MS pyrograms from a series of alfalfa preparations, a ggrass, an angiosperm wood, a cellulose and an arabinoxylan were obtained under pyrolytic conditions optimal for aromatic componentsExpand
Multi-scale visualization and characterization of lignocellulosic plant cell wall deconstruction during thermochemical pretreatment
Deconstruction of lignocellulosic plant cell walls to fermentable sugars by thermochemical and/or biological means is impeded by several poorly understood ultrastructural and chemical barriers. AExpand
Downregulation of Cinnamoyl-Coenzyme A Reductase in Poplar: Multiple-Level Phenotyping Reveals Effects on Cell Wall Polymer Metabolism and Structure[W]
Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) catalyzes the penultimate step in monolignol biosynthesis. We show that downregulation of CCR in transgenic poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba) was associated withExpand