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The organization of networks within the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex of rats, monkeys and humans.
The OMPFC appears to function as a sensory-visceromotor link, especially for eating, which appears to be critical for the guidance of reward-related behavior and for setting of mood.
Mild cognitive impairment represents early-stage Alzheimer disease.
It is concluded that MCI generally represents early-stage AD and individuals currently characterized as having MCI progress steadily to greater stages of dementia severity at rates dependent on the level of cognitive impairment at entry and they almost always have the neuropathologic features of AD.
Subgenual prefrontal cortex abnormalities in mood disorders
Using positron emission tomographic images of cerebral blood flow and rate of glucose metabolism to measure brain activity, an area of abnormally decreased activity is localized in the pre-frontal cortex ventral to the genu of the corpus callosum in both familial bipolar depressives and familial unipolar depressives.
Brain structural and functional abnormalities in mood disorders: implications for neurocircuitry models of depression
Because the MPFC and related limbic structures provide forebrain modulation over visceral control structures in the hypothalamus and brainstem, their dysfunction can account for the disturbances in autonomic regulation and neuroendocrine responses that are associated with mood disorders.
Resting-state functional MRI in depression unmasks increased connectivity between networks via the dorsal nexus
It is suggested that the newly identified dorsal nexus plays a critical role in depressive symptomatology, in effect “hot wiring” networks together; it further suggests that reducing increased connectivity of the dorsal nexus presents a potential therapeutic target.
Neurocircuitry of Mood Disorders
A system has been described that links the medial prefrontal cortex and a few related cortical areas to the amygdala, the ventral striatum and pallidum, the medial thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the periaqueductal gray and other parts of the brainstem, which indicates that this system is centrally involved in mood disorders.
Limbic connections of the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex in macaque monkeys
Previous studies have shown that the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex (OMPFC) is extensively connected with medial temporal and cingulate limbic structures. In this study, the organization of
Profound Loss of Layer II Entorhinal Cortex Neurons Occurs in Very Mild Alzheimer’s Disease
Stereological principles of neuron counting support the conclusion that a marked decrement of layer II neurons distinguishes even very mild AD from nondemented aging.
Architectonic subdivision of the human orbital and medial prefrontal cortex
The structure of the human orbital and medial prefrontal cortex (OMPFC) was investigated using five histological and immunohistochemical stains and was correlated with a previous analysis in macaque
Architectonic subdivision of the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex in the macaque monkey
The architectonic structure of the OMPFC was analyzed with nine histochemical and immunohistochemical stains in 32 individuals of three macaque species to allow the visualization of markers related to metabolism, synapses, and neurotransmitters.