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Formation of the Giant Planets by Concurrent Accretion of Solids and Gas
New numerical simulations of the formation of the giant of the second phase. planets are presented, in which for the first time both the gas and The actual rates at which the giant planets accretedExpand
Composition and radiative properties of grains in molecular clouds and accretion disks
We define a model of the compositon and abundances of grains and gases in molecular cloud cores and accretion disks around young stars by employing a wide range of astronomical data and theory, theExpand
Stratospheric aerosol optical depths, 1850–1990
A global stratospheric aerosol database employed for climate simulations is described. For the period 1883-1990, aerosol optical depths are estimated from optical extinction data, whose qualityExpand
The optical constants of several atmospheric aerosol species: Ammonium sulfate, aluminum oxide, and sodium chloride
The optical constants of substances composing atmospheric aerosols are required to evaluate properly the effects of aerosols on the earth's radiation balance. We briefly review techniques forExpand
Mars atmospheric dynamics as simulated by the NASA Ames General Circulation Model: 1. The zonal‐mean circulation
This is the first in a series of papers that will discuss Mars atmospheric dynamics as simulated by the NASA Ames General Circulation Model (GCM). This paper describes the GCM's zonal-meanExpand
Calculations of the accretion and evolution of giant planets: The effects of solid cores
The evolution of the giant planets is calculated under the general hypothesis that the solid cores formed first, by accretion of small particles, and that these cores later gravitationally attractedExpand
Viking Lander image analysis of Martian atmospheric dust
We have reanalyzed three sets of Viking Lander 1 and 2 (VL1 and VL2) images of the Martian atmosphere to better evaluate the radiative properties of the atmospheric dust particles. The properties ofExpand
Voyager 2 at Neptune: Imaging Science Results
Voyager 2 images of Neptune reveal a windy planet characterized by bright clouds of methane ice suspended in an exceptionally clear atmosphere above a lower deck of hydrogen sulfide or ammonia ices.Expand
Dynamics of the atmosphere of Mars
The current understanding of the Martian atmospheric circulation and boundary layer is described. The available meteorological data and the first-order constraints that can be derived from them areExpand
Properties and effects of dust particles suspended in the Martian atmosphere
Direct measurements of the optical depth above the two Viking landers are reported for a period covering the summer, fall, and winter seasons in the northern hemisphere, a time period during whichExpand