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The roughness of natural terrain: A planetary and remote sensing perspective
- M. Shepard, B. Campbell, M. Bulmer, T. Farr, L. Gaddis, J. Plaut
- Geology, Environmental Science
- 25 December 2001
We examine the various methods and parameters in common use for quantifying and reporting surface topographic “roughness.” It is shown that scale-dependent roughness parameters are almost always…
SHARAD sounding radar on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
 SHARAD (SHAllow RADar) is a sounding radar provided by Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) as a Facility Instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mission. Its 20-MHz center frequency and 10-MHz…
Global distribution of near-surface hydrogen on Mars
 Neutron data observed using the Neutron Spectrometer aboard 2001 Mars Odyssey provide a lower limit to the global inventory of Martian water-equivalent hydrogen. Hydrogen-rich deposits ranging…
Variation of the Martian Ionospheric Electron Density from Mars Express Radar Soundings
 The Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding aboard Mars Express has been in operation for over 2 years. Between 14 August 2005 and 31 July 2007, we obtain 34,492 ionospheric…
Subsurface Radar Sounding of the South Polar Layered Deposits of Mars
The ice-rich south polar layered deposits of Mars were probed with the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding on the Mars Express orbiter, suggesting a composition of nearly pure water ice.
Mars North Polar Deposits: Stratigraphy, Age, and Geodynamical Response
The Shallow Radar (SHARAD) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has imaged the internal stratigraphy of the north polar layered deposits of Mars, revealing a laterally continuous deposition of layers which typically consist of four packets of finely spaced reflectors separated by homogeneous interpacket regions of nearly pure ice.
Surface Ages and Resurfacing Rates of the Polar Layered Deposits on Mars
Interpretation of the polar stratigraphy of Mars in terms of global climate changes is complicated by the significant difference in surface ages between the north and south polar layered terrains…
Radar Sounding Evidence for Buried Glaciers in the Southern Mid-Latitudes of Mars
Soundings of these deposits in the eastern Hellas region by the Shallow Radar on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter reveal radar properties entirely consistent with massive water ice, supporting the debris-covered glacier hypothesis.
Radar evidence for ice in lobate debris aprons in the mid‐northern latitudes of Mars
Subsurface radar sounding data indicate that lobate debris aprons found in Deuteronilus Mensae in the mid‐northern latitudes of Mars are composed predominantly of water ice. The position in time…
Magnetically controlled structures in the ionosphere of Mars
 The ionospheric sounding data obtained by the MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding) instrument on the Mars Express spacecraft show that the dayside ionosphere has…