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Urinary Creatinine Concentrations in the U.S. Population: Implications for Urinary Biologic Monitoring Measurements
The normal range of urinary creatinine concentrations among various demographic groups are documented, the impact that variations in creatinin concentrations can have on classifying exposure status of individuals in epidemiologic studies are evaluated, and an approach using multiple regression to adjust for variations in Creatinine in multivariate analyses is recommended.
Chlorinated hydrocarbon levels in human serum: Effects of fasting and feeding
Twenty healthy adult humans had serum samples drawn on four occasions within a 24-hr period: after a 12 hr overnight fast, 4–5 hr after a high fat breakfast, at midafternoon, and the next morning
The decline in blood lead levels in the United States. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES)
A substantial decline in blood lead levels is demonstrated of the entire US population and within selected subgroups of the population and similar declines were found in population subgroups defined by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income level, and urban status.
Levels of seven urinary phthalate metabolites in a human reference population.
It is strongly suggested that health-risk assessments for phthalate exposure in humans should include diethyl, dibutyl, and benzyl butyl phthalates.
Exposure of the U.S. population to lead, 1991-1994.
Blood lead levels continue to decline in the U.S. population, but 890,000 children still have elevated levels, and lead poisoning prevention programs should target high-risk persons, such as children who live in old homes, children of minority groups, and children living in families with low income.
Trends in Blood Lead Levels and Blood Lead Testing Among US Children Aged 1 to 5 Years, 1988–2004
Children's blood lead levels continue to decline in the United States, even in historically high-risk groups for lead poisoning, and efforts must continue to test children at high risk for lead contamination, and identify and control sources of lead.
Exposure of the US population to environmental tobacco smoke: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988 to 1991.
The high proportion of the population with detectable serum cotinine levels indicates widespread exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the US population and both the home and workplace environments significantly contribute to environmental Tobacco smoke exposure in the United States.
Blood lead levels in the US population. Phase 1 of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988 to 1991)
The low overall mean blood lead levels demonstrate a major public health success in primary prevention efforts, however, exposure to lead at levels that may adversely affect the health of children remains a problem especially for those who are minority, urban, and from low-income families.
Urinary Perchlorate and Thyroid Hormone Levels in Adolescent and Adult Men and Women Living in the United States
Background Perchlorate is commonly found in the environment and known to inhibit thyroid function at high doses. Assessing the potential effect of low-level exposure to perchlorate on thyroid
Pharmacokinetics of TCDD in veterans of Operation Ranch Hand: 10-year follow-up.
Estimated half-life of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in 213 veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, the Air Force unit responsible for the aerial spraying of Agent Orange in Vietnam, increased significantly with increasing body fat, but not with age or relative changes in percent body fat.