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Induction of an outer surface protein on Borrelia burgdorferi during tick feeding.
In vitro growth experiments find that spirochetes in the midgut of ticks that have fully engorged on mice now have OspC on their surface, indicating that two environmental cues, an increase in temperature and tick feeding, trigger a major alteration of the spirochetal outer membrane. Expand
Temporal Changes in Outer Surface Proteins A and C of the Lyme Disease-Associated Spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, during the Chain of Infection in Ticks and Mice
The temporal synthesis of OspC by spirochetes only in feeding ticks that were infected prior to the blood meal suggests that this surface protein is involved in transmission from tick to mammal but not from mammal to tick. Expand
Phylogeny of hard- and soft-tick taxa (Acari: Ixodida) based on mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequences.
  • W. Black, J. Piesman
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
  • 11 October 1994
The derived phylogeny failed to support a monophyletic relationship among members of Ornithodorinae and supported placement of Argasinae as basal to the Ixodidae, suggesting that hard ticks may have originated from an Argas-like ancestor, and supports earlier suggestions thathard ticks did not evolve until the late Cretaceous. Expand
Lyme borreliosis in Europe and North America
The biology of the aetiologic agents, as well as the clinical aspects, diagnosis and treatment of this disease on both continents, and the transmission dynamics of the spirochete are reviewed in an attempt to compare and contrast Lyme borreliosis in Europe and North America. Expand
Antigenic and genetic heterogeneity of Borrelia burgdorferi populations transmitted by ticks.
The B. burgdorferi population structure with respect to the production of two lipoproteins during transmission from the tick vector to the mammalian host is described and a model, which is different from the established model, is proposed that converts a homogeneous spirochete population into a heterogeneous population that is poised to infect the mammalianHost. Expand
Reported distribution of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the United States.
A national map of the distribution of the vectors of B. burgdorferi to humans (Ixodes scapularis Say and Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls ticks) was developed, finding populations with established populations were most concentrated in the northeastern, upper northcentral, and west-coastal states but were also clustered in southeastern and Gulf-coastsal states. Expand
Identification of an uncultivable Borrelia species in the hard tick Amblyomma americanum: possible agent of a Lyme disease-like illness.
Phylogenetic analysis showed that the spirochete was a Borrelia species distinct from previously characterized members of this genus, including Bor Relia burgdorferi. Expand
Ecology of Ixodes dammini-borne human babesiosis and Lyme disease.
This review summarizes the accumulated evidence implicating I. dammini as the vector of babesiosis and Lyme disease, describes the natural history of these zoonoses, and identifies concepts that may assist efforts to reduce the risk of human disease. Expand
Lyme borreliosis: relation of its causative agent to its vectors and hosts in North America and Europe.
Recapitulation des travaux portant sur les relations entre B. burgdorferi, les differents arthropodes vecteurs et leurs hotes vertebres en Amerique et en en Europe
MLST of housekeeping genes captures geographic population structure and suggests a European origin of Borrelia burgdorferi
The study demonstrates that the concatenated sequences of the housekeeping genes of B. burgdorferi provide highly resolved phylogenetic signals and that the housekeeper genes evolve differently compared with the IGS locus and ospC. Expand