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Social conditions as fundamental causes of disease.
It is argued that social factors such as socioeconomic status and social support are likely "fundamental causes" of disease that, because they embody access to important resources, affect multiple disease outcomes through multiple mechanisms, and consequently maintain an association with disease even when intervening mechanisms change.
Public conceptions of mental illness: labels, causes, dangerousness, and social distance.
- Bruce G. Link, J. Phelan, M. Bresnahan, A. Stueve, B. Pescosolido
- Psychology, MedicineAmerican Journal of Public Health
- 1 September 1999
While there is reason for optimism in the public's recognition of mental illness and causal attributions, a strong stereotype of dangerousness and desire for social distance persist and are likely to negatively affect people with mental illness.
Social Conditions as Fundamental Causes of Health Inequalities: Theory, Evidence, and Policy Implications
- J. Phelan, Bruce G. Link, P. Tehranifar
- Political ScienceJournal of Health and Social Behavior
- 1 March 2010
The theory of fundamental causes of the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and mortality has persisted despite radical changes in the diseases and risk factors that are presumed to explain it is explained.
"A disease like any other"? A decade of change in public reactions to schizophrenia, depression, and alcohol dependence.
- B. Pescosolido, Jack K. Martin, J. Long, Tait R. Medina, J. Phelan, Bruce G. Link
- Psychology, MedicineAmerican Journal of Psychiatry
- 1 November 2010
More of the public embraces a neurobiological understanding of mental illness, which translates into support for services but not into a decrease in stigma.
Measuring mental illness stigma.
This article reviews 123 empirical articles published between January 1995 and June 2003 that have sought to assess mental illness stigma and identifies commonly used and promising measures and describes those measures in more detail so that readers can decide whether the described measures might be appropriate for their studies.
Stigma and its public health implications
Culture and stigma: adding moral experience to stigma theory.
Internalized stigma predicts erosion of morale among psychiatric outpatients
On stigma and its consequences: evidence from a longitudinal study of men with dual diagnoses of mental illness and substance abuse.
- Bruce G. Link, E. Struening, M. Rahav, J. Phelan, L. Nuttbrock
- PsychologyJournal of Health and Social Behavior
- 1 June 1997
This finding indicates that stigma continues to complicate the lives of the stigmatized even as treatment improves their symptoms and functioning, and it follows that if health professionals want to maximize the well-being of the people they treat, they must address stigma as a separate and important factor in its own right.
Stigma as a fundamental cause of population health inequalities.
This work provides illustrative evidence on the health consequences of stigma and presents a conceptual framework describing the psychological and structural pathways through which stigma influences health.