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Molecular characterization of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor
The identification and cloning of an apoptosis-inducing factor, AIF, which is sufficient to induce apoptosis of isolated nuclei is reported, indicating that AIF is a mitochondrial effector of apoptotic cell death.
OPGL is a key regulator of osteoclastogenesis, lymphocyte development and lymph-node organogenesis
OPGL is a new regulator of lymph-node organogenesis and lymphocyte development and is an essential osteoclast differentiation factor in vivo.
Negative Regulation of PKB/Akt-Dependent Cell Survival by the Tumor Suppressor PTEN
The results show that PTEN may exert its role as a tumor suppressor by negatively regulating the PI3'K/PKB/Akt signaling pathway.
A crucial role of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in SARS coronavirus–induced lung injury
A molecular explanation why SARS-CoV infections cause severe and often lethal lung failure and suggest a rational therapy for SARS and possibly other respiratory disease viruses is provided.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is an essential regulator of heart function
These genetic data for ACE2 show that it is an essential regulator of heart function in vivo and targeted disruption of ACE2 in mice results in a severe cardiac contractility defect, increased angiotensin II levels, and upregulation of hypoxia-induced genes in the heart.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 protects from severe acute lung failure
It is reported that ACE2 and the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2) protect mice from severe acute lung injury induced by acid aspiration or sepsis, pointing to a possible therapy for a syndrome affecting millions of people worldwide every year.
Activated T cells regulate bone loss and joint destruction in adjuvant arthritis through osteoprotegerin ligand
The results show that both systemic and local T-cell activation can lead to OPGL production and subsequent bone loss, and they provide a novel paradigm for T cells as regulators of bone physiology.
Cerebral organoids model human brain development and microcephaly
A human pluripotent stem cell-derived three-dimensional organoid culture system that develops various discrete, although interdependent, brain regions that include a cerebral cortex containing progenitor populations that organize and produce mature cortical neuron subtypes is developed.
Identification of Oxidative Stress and Toll-like Receptor 4 Signaling as a Key Pathway of Acute Lung Injury
It is reported that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mutant mice display natural resistance to acid-induced acute lung injury (ALI), and it is shown that TLR4-TRIF-TRAF6 signaling is a key disease pathway that controls the severity of ALI.
Evidence for osteocyte regulation of bone homeostasis through RANKL expression
It is found that purified osteocytes express a much higher amount of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and have a greater capacity to support osteoclastogenesis in vitro than osteoblasts and bone marrow stromal cells.