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Opportunities for mesoscopics in thermometry and refrigeration: Physics and applications
This review presents an overview of the thermal properties of mesoscopic structures. The discussion is based on the concept of electron energy distribution, and, in particular, on controlling and
Single-electron current sources: towards a refined definition of ampere
Controlling electrons at the level of elementary charge $e$ has been demonstrated experimentally already in the 1980's. Ever since, producing an electrical current $ef$, or its integer multiple, at a
Environment-assisted tunneling as an origin of the Dynes density of states.
It is shown that the effect of a high-temperature environment in current transport through a normal metal-insulator-superconductor tunnel junction can be described by an effective density of states in the superconductor that reduces into the well-known Dynes form in the limit of a resistive low-Ohmic environment.
Towards quantum thermodynamics in electronic circuits
Electronic circuits operating at sub-kelvin temperatures are attractive candidates for studying classical and quantum thermodynamics: their temperature can be controlled and measured locally with
Origin of hysteresis in a proximity josephson junction.
The results demonstrate unambiguously that the hysteresis results from an increase of the normal-metal electron temperature once the junction switches to the resistive state.
Single-mode heat conduction by photons
Experimental results are reported showing that at low temperatures heat is transferred by photon radiation, when electron–phonon as well as normal electronic heat conduction is frozen out.
Violation of the Wiedemann-Franz law in a single-electron transistor.
It is found that Coulomb interaction leads to a strong violation of the Wiedemann-Franz law: the Lorenz ratio becomes gate-voltage dependent for sequential tunneling, and is increased by a factor 9/5 in the cotunneling regime.
Tunable photonic heat transport in a quantum heat valve
Quantum thermodynamics is emerging both as a topic of fundamental research and as a means to understand and potentially improve the performance of quantum devices1–10. A prominent platform for
Efficient Peltier refrigeration by a pair of normal metal/insulator/superconductor junctions
We suggest and demonstrate in experiment that two normal metal/insulator/superconductor (NIS) tunnel junctions combined in series to form a symmetric SINIS structure can operate as an efficient
Micrometre-scale refrigerators.
This paper reviews the basic experimental conditions in realizing the coolers and the main practical issues that are known to limit their performance and gives an update of experiments performed on cryogenic micrometre-scale coolers in the past five years.