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Reproduction of Antarctic Benthic Marine Invertebrates: Tempos, Modes, and Timing
TLDR
There is little or no evidence for temperature adaptation with respect to reproduction (gametogenesis), development, and growth, and it remains to be determined whether the slow rates of these processes reflect some inherent inability to adapt to low temperatures, or are a response to features of the antarctic marine environment not directly related to low temperature.
DEVELOPMENT, METAMORPHOSIS, AND SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF EMBRYOS AND LARVAE OF THE ANTARCTIC SEA URCHIN STERECHINUS NEUMAYERI.
TLDR
The development to metamorphosis of the shallow-water antarctic sea urchin, Sterechinus neumayeri, is described for the first time and the timing of spawning ensures that feeding larvae are in the plankton during the abbreviated summer peak of phytoplankton abundance in McMurdo Sound.
POPULATION STRUCTURE AND SPECIATION IN TROPICAL SEAS: GLOBAL PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF THE SEA URCHIN DIADEMA
TLDR
This work reconstructed the phylogeny of the pantropical and subtropical sea urchin genus Diadema, using sequences of mitochondrial DNA from 482 individuals collected around the world, to determine the efficacy of barriers to gene flow and to ascertain the history of possible dispersal and vicariance events that led to speciation.
Early evolution of animal cell signaling and adhesion genes
TLDR
This work demonstrates that the sponge Oscarella carmela, one of the earliest branching animals, expresses core components of the Wnt, transforming growth factor β, receptor tyrosine kinase, Notch, Hedgehog, and Jak/Stat signaling pathways, and infer that key signaling and adhesion genes were in place early in animal evolution, before the divergence of sponge and eumetazoan lineages.
Food, reproduction and organic constitution of the common Antarctic echinoid Sterechinus neumayeri (Meissner).
TLDR
Specimens of S. neumayeri in McMurdo Sound have discrete reproductive periodicities as do most echinoids in other parts of the world, and nutrients seem to be accumulated in the nutritive phagocytes of the gonad during the summer when phytoproduction occurs, and the gonads increase in size during this period.
Habitat Differences in Marine Invasions of Central California
TLDR
The finding that the more species rich habitat – the open coast – is less invaded is in contrast to many terrestrial examples, where native and exotic species richness appear to be positively correlated at a broad geographic scale.
Developmental types of shallow-water asteroids of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica
TLDR
The mode of development was ascertained for 14 of the 16 species of sea stars known to occur in shallow waters of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, and most of the species surveyed had pelagic larvae, which contradicts inferences of unusual selection for benthic development in the Antarctic.
Sexual reproduction in solitary corals: Overlapping oogenic and brooding cycles, and benthic planulas in Balanophyllia elegans
TLDR
The skeletal design of the corallum of B. elegans accommodates the brooding of unusually large embryos; this design may be indicative of brooding large embryos in other species of corals, particularly dendrophyllids.
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