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The origin of mutants
Nucleic acids are replicated with conspicuous fidelity. Infrequently, however, they undergo changes in sequence, and this process of change (mutation) generates the variability that allows evolution.Expand
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Effect of breastfeeding and formula feeding on transmission of HIV-1: a randomized clinical trial.
CONTEXT Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is known to occur through breastfeeding, but the magnitude of risk has not been precisely defined. Whether breast milk HIV-1Expand
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Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 V1-V2 Envelope Loop Sequences Expand and Add Glycosylation Sites over the Course of Infection, and These Modifications Affect Antibody Neutralization Sensitivity
ABSTRACT Over the course of infection, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) continuously adapts to evade the evolving host neutralizing antibody responses. Changes in the envelope variableExpand
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Hormonal contraception, vitamin A deficiency, and other risk factors for shedding of HIV-1 infected cells from the cervix and vagina
BACKGROUND Factors that influence shedding of HIV-1 infected cells in cervical and vaginal secretions may be important determinants of sexual and vertical transmission of the virus. We investigatedExpand
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Selection for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope Glycosylation Variants with Shorter V1-V2 Loop Sequences Occurs during Transmission of Certain Genetic Subtypes and May Impact Viral RNA
ABSTRACT Designing an effective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine will rely on understanding which variants, from among the myriad of circulating HIV-1 strains, are most commonlyExpand
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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 coreceptors participate in postentry stages in the virus replication cycle and function in simian immunodeficiency virus infection.
Primate lentiviruses use chemokine coreceptors in addition to the CD4 receptor to initiate virus infection. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) productively infects human cells expressing CD4 and theExpand
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Correlates of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission: association with maternal plasma HIV-1 RNA load, genital HIV-1 DNA shedding, and breast infections.
To determine the effects of plasma, genital, and breast milk human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and breast infections on perinatal HIV-1 transmission, a nested case-control study wasExpand
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HIV/AIDS in Women: An Expanding Epidemic
More than 20 years into the human immunodeficiency virus–type 1 (HIV-1) epidemic, women account for nearly half of the 40 million people living with HIV-1 worldwide, with an even higher proportionExpand
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Breadth of Neutralizing Antibody Response to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Is Affected by Factors Early in Infection but Does Not Influence Disease Progression
ABSTRACT The determinants of a broad neutralizing antibody (NAb) response and its effect on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease progression are not well defined, partly because mostExpand
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Higher set point plasma viral load and more-severe acute HIV type 1 (HIV-1) illness predict mortality among high-risk HIV-1-infected African women.
BACKGROUND There is limited information on the natural history of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in Africa, especially from individuals with well-defined dates of infection. WeExpand
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