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GPR120 Is an Omega-3 Fatty Acid Receptor Mediating Potent Anti-inflammatory and Insulin-Sensitizing Effects
Macrophages, inflammation, and insulin resistance.
Strategies focused on inhibiting the inflammation/insulin resistance axis that otherwise preserve essential innate immune functions may hold promise for therapeutic intervention.
A Subpopulation of Macrophages Infiltrates Hypertrophic Adipose Tissue and Is Activated by Free Fatty Acids via Toll-like Receptors 2 and 4 and JNK-dependent Pathways*
The results show that FFAs can activate CD11c+ myeloid proinflammatory cells via TLR2/4 and JNK signaling pathways, thereby promoting inflammation and subsequent cellular insulin resistance.
Small molecule activators of SIRT1 as therapeutics for the treatment of type 2 diabetes
These compounds bind to the SIRT1 enzyme–peptide substrate complex at an allosteric site amino-terminal to the catalytic domain and lower the Michaelis constant for acetylated substrates and improve whole-body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver.
The cellular and signaling networks linking the immune system and metabolism in disease
This work discusses how various networks underlie the etiology of the inflammatory component of insulin resistance, with a particular focus on the central roles of macrophages in adipose tissue and liver.
Insulin sensitivity: modulation by nutrients and inflammation.
- S. Schenk, M. Saberi, J. Olefsky
- Biology, MedicineThe Journal of clinical investigation
- 2 September 2008
The hypothesis that the macrophage is an important cell type in the propagation of inflammation and induction of insulin resistance in obesity is focused on, which provides the integrative perspective regarding how nutrients and obesity interact to regulate insulin sensitivity.
IKK-beta links inflammation to obesity-induced insulin resistance.
IKK-beta acts locally in liver and systemically in myeloid cells, where NF-kappaB activation induces inflammatory mediators that cause insulin resistance, demonstrating the importance of liver cell IKK- beta in hepatic insulin resistance and the central role of myeloids cells in development of systemic insulin resistance.
Reduced-median-network analysis of complete mitochondrial DNA coding-region sequences for the major African, Asian, and European haplogroups.
This work used reduced-median-network approaches to analyze 560 complete European, Asian, and African mtDNA coding-region sequences from unrelated individuals to develop a more complete understanding of sequence diversity both within and between haplogroups.
Adipose-specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ knockout causes insulin resistance in fat and liver but not in muscle
- Weimin He, Y. Barak, R. Evans
- Biology, MedicineProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 5 December 2003
Surprisingly, TZD treatment effectively reversed liver IR, whereas it failed to lower plasma free fatty acids, suggesting that syndrome X may be comprised of separable PPARγ-dependent components whose origins and therapeutic sites may reside in distinct tissues.