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Macrophages, inflammation, and insulin resistance.
Obesity induces an insulin-resistant state in adipose tissue, liver, and muscle and is a strong risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance in the setting of… Expand
GPR120 Is an Omega-3 Fatty Acid Receptor Mediating Potent Anti-inflammatory and Insulin-Sensitizing Effects
Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 FAs), DHA and EPA, exert anti-inflammatory effects, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that the G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) functions as… Expand
A Subpopulation of Macrophages Infiltrates Hypertrophic Adipose Tissue and Is Activated by Free Fatty Acids via Toll-like Receptors 2 and 4 and JNK-dependent Pathways*
- M. Nguyen, S. Favelyukis, +7 authors J. Olefsky
- Medicine, Biology
- Journal of Biological Chemistry
- 30 November 2007
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are characterized by decreased insulin sensitivity, elevated concentrations of free fatty acids (FFAs), and increased macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue (AT). Here,… Expand
Small molecule activators of SIRT1 as therapeutics for the treatment of type 2 diabetes
Calorie restriction extends lifespan and produces a metabolic profile desirable for treating diseases of ageing such as type 2 diabetes. SIRT1, an NAD+-dependent deacetylase, is a principal modulator… Expand
The cellular and signaling networks linking the immune system and metabolism in disease
It is now recognized that obesity is driving the type 2 diabetes epidemic in Western countries. Obesity-associated chronic tissue inflammation is a key contributing factor to type 2 diabetes and… Expand
Insulin sensitivity: modulation by nutrients and inflammation.
Insulin resistance is a major metabolic feature of obesity and is a key factor in the etiology of a number of diseases, including type 2 diabetes. In this review, we discuss potential mechanisms by… Expand
IKK-beta links inflammation to obesity-induced insulin resistance.
Inflammation may underlie the metabolic disorders of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. IkappaB kinase beta (IKK-beta, encoded by Ikbkb) is a central coordinator of inflammatory responses… Expand
Reduced-median-network analysis of complete mitochondrial DNA coding-region sequences for the major African, Asian, and European haplogroups.
- C. Herrnstadt, J. Elson, +8 authors N. Howell
- Biology, Medicine
- American journal of human genetics
- 1 May 2002
The evolution of the human mitochondrial genome is characterized by the emergence of ethnically distinct lineages or haplogroups. Nine European, seven Asian (including Native American), and three… Expand
Adipose-specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ knockout causes insulin resistance in fat and liver but not in muscle
- W. He, Y. Barak, +7 authors R. Evans
- Medicine, Biology
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 5 December 2003
Syndrome X, typified by obesity, insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidemia, and other metabolic abnormalities, is responsive to antidiabetic thiazolidinediones (TZDs). Peroxisome proliferator-activated… Expand
Phosphoinositide signalling links O-GlcNAc transferase to insulin resistance
Glucose flux through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway leads to the post-translational modification of cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). This tandem… Expand