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Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: Principal results from the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial
TLDR
Overall health risks exceeded benefits from use of combined estrogen plus progestin for an average 5.2-year follow-up among healthy postmenopausal US women, and the results indicate that this regimen should not be initiated or continued for primary prevention of CHD. Expand
Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial.
TLDR
The use of conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) increases the risk of stroke, decreases therisk of hip fracture, and does not affect CHD incidence in postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy over an average of 6.8 years, indicating no overall benefit. Expand
Estrogen plus progestin and the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study: a randomized controlled trial.
TLDR
Estrogen plus progestin therapy increased the risk for probable dementia in postmenopausal women aged 65 years or older and did not prevent mild cognitive impairment in these women, supporting the conclusion that the risks of estrogen plus progESTin outweigh the benefits. Expand
Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures.
TLDR
Among healthy postmenopausal women, calcium with vitamin D supplementation resulted in a small but significant improvement in hip bone density, did not significantly reduce hip fracture, and increased the risk of kidney stones. Expand
Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of colorectal cancer.
TLDR
Daily supplementation of calcium with vitamin D for seven years had no effect on the incidence of colorectal cancer among postmenopausal women, and the long latency associated with the development of colorescopy cancer, along with the seven-year duration of the trial, may have contributed to this null finding. Expand
Menopausal hormone therapy and health outcomes during the intervention and extended poststopping phases of the Women's Health Initiative randomized trials.
TLDR
Most risks and benefits dissipated postintervention, although some elevation in breast cancer risk persisted during cumulative follow-up and the 2 WHI hormone therapy trials do not support use of this therapy. Expand
Initial symptoms of nicotine dependence in adolescents
TLDR
The first symptoms of nicotine dependence can appear within days to weeks of the onset of occasional use, often before the onset with respect to the duration and frequency of tobacco use. Expand
Measuring the loss of autonomy over nicotine use in adolescents: the DANDY (Development and Assessment of Nicotine Dependence in Youths) study.
TLDR
The autonomy theory represents a potentially useful alternative to current concepts of nicotine dependence for adolescents, and the HONC appears to measure lost autonomy in adolescents. Expand
Recreational physical activity and the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative Cohort Study.
TLDR
It is suggested that increased physical activity is associated with reduced risk for breast cancer in postmenopausal women, longer duration provides most benefit, and that such activity need not be strenuous. Expand
Development of symptoms of tobacco dependence in youths: 30 month follow up data from the DANDY study
TLDR
There does not appear to be a minimum nicotine dose or duration of use as a prerequisite for symptoms to appear, and the development of a single symptom strongly predicted continued use, supporting the theory that the loss of autonomy over tobacco use begins with the first symptom of dependence. Expand
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