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Grandmothering, menopause, and the evolution of human life histories.
- K. Hawkes, J. O'connell, N. Jones, H. Alvarez, E. Charnov
- BiologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 3 February 1998
This hypothesis also accounts for the authors' late maturity, small size at weaning, and high fertility, and has implications for past human habitat choice and social organization and for ideas about the importance of extended learning and paternal provisioning in human evolution.
Hadza Women's Time Allocation, Offspring Provisioning, and the Evolution of Long Postmenopausal Life Spans
Extended provisioning of offspring and long postmenopausal life spans are characteristic of all modern humans but no other primates. These traits may have evolved in tandem. Analysis of relationships…
why hunters gather: optimal foraging and the Aché of eastern Paraguay
This paper analyzes the foraging behavior of the Ache of eastern Paraguay and concludes that it is consistent with predictions derived from optimal foraging models, and infer that these very general models will continue to prove useful in explaining variation in hunter-gatherer subsistence patterns throughout time and space.
Behavioral Ecology and Archaeology
Behavioral ecology is the study of adaptive behavior in relation to social and environmental circumstances and holds that the reproductive strategies and decision-making capacities of all living organisms—including humans—are shaped by natural selection.
Grandmothering and the evolution of homo erectus.
An alternative scenario is developed, that climate-driven adjustments in female foraging and food sharing practices, possibly involving tubers, favored significant changes in ancestral life history, morphology, and ecology leading to the appearance, spread and persistence of H. erectus.
Hunting and Nuclear Families: Some Lessons from the Hadza about Men's Work
Hadza hunter-gatherers display economic and social features usually assumed to indicate the dependence of wives and children on provisioning husbands and fathers. The wives and children of better…
Hunting income patterns among the Hadza: big game, common goods, foraging goals and the evolution of the human diet.
- K. Hawkes, J. O'connell, N. Jones
- EconomicsPhilosophical transactions of the Royal Society…
- 29 November 1991
Experimental data is reported showing that hunters would reduce their mean rates if they included small animals in the array they target, and finding that an exclusive focus on large game with extensive sharing is not the optimal strategy for hunters concerned with maximizing their own chances of eating meat.
Alyawara Site Structure and Its Archaeological Implications
- J. O'connell
- Environmental ScienceAmerican Antiquity
- 1 January 1987
Ethnoarchaeological research has shown that the assumptions formerly guiding the investigation of hunter-gatherer site structure are invalid, at least as general rules. Further research is now…
Dating the colonization of Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea): a review of recent research
Demography of the Hadza, an increasing and high density population of Savanna foragers.
- N. Blurton Jones, L. C. Smith, J. O'connell, K. Hawkes, C. Kamuzora
- EconomicsAmerican journal of physical anthropology
- 1 October 1992
The results of a census are described, and the estimation of age structure, survivorship, mean age of women at childbearing, number of live children, total population size and density, and rate of change since 1967 are described.