The outputs of spectral unmixing, endmember, and abundance estimates are important for identifying the material composition of mixtures and the applicability of models and techniques is highly dependent on the variety of circumstances and factors that give rise to mixed pixels.
Global Mineralogical and Aqueous Mars History Derived from OMEGA/Mars Express Data
Global mineralogical mapping of Mars by the Observatoire pour la Mineralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité (OMEGA) instrument on the European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft provides new…
Evidence for recent climate change on Mars from the identification of youthful near-surface ground ice
Observational evidence for a mid-latitude reservoir of near-surface water ice occupying the pore space of soils is reported and it is inferred that the reservoir was created during the last phase of high orbital obliquity less than 100,000 years ago, and is now being diminished.
Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO)
 The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) is a hyperspectral imager on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft. CRISM consists of three subassemblies, a gimbaled…
Sulfates in Martian Layered Terrains: The OMEGA/Mars Express View
Outcrops in Valles Marineris, Margaritifer Sinus, and Terra Meridiani show evidence for kieserite, gypsum, and polyhydrated sulfates, which constitute direct records of the past aqueous activity on Mars.
Mars Surface Diversity as Revealed by the OMEGA/Mars Express Observations
The OMEGA investigation, on board the European Space Agency Mars Express mission, has identified and mapped mafic iron-bearing silicates of both the northern and southern crust, localized concentrations of hydrated phyllosilicates and sulfates but no carbonates, and ices and frosts with a water-ice composition of the north polar perennial cap.
Recent ice ages on Mars
Evidence is shown that dusty, water-ice-rich mantling deposits on Mars formed during a geologically recent ice age that occurred from about 2.1 to 0.4 Myr ago, a key pacemaker of ice ages on the Earth.
Orbital forcing of the martian polar layered deposits
A correlation exists between ice-layer radiance as a function of depth and the insolation variations in summer at the martian north pole, similar to what has been shown for palaeoclimate studies of the Earth.
Subsurface water and clay mineral formation during the early history of Mars
Clay minerals, recently discovered to be widespread in Mars’s Noachian terrains, indicate long-duration interaction between water and rock over 3.7 billion years ago, and available data indicate substantial Martian clay formation by hydrothermal groundwater circulation and a Noachia rock record dominated by evidence of subsurface waters.
Viscous flow features on the surface of Mars: Observations from high‐resolution Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images
(10 5 –10 7 years) of the material. Our shear stress estimates of 10 � 1.5 –10 � 2.5 MPa yield strain rates on the order of 10 � 11 –10 � 16 s � 1 , which are within the superplastic flow regime of…