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  • Influence
Sound localization by human listeners.
In keeping with our promise earlier in this review, we summarize here the process by which we believe spatial cues are used for localizing a sound source in a free-field listening situation. WeExpand
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Two-dimensional sound localization by human listeners.
This study measured the ability of subjects to localize broadband sound sources that varied in both horizontal and vertical location. Brief (150 ms) sounds were presented in a free field, andExpand
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Location Coding by Opponent Neural Populations in the Auditory Cortex
Although the auditory cortex plays a necessary role in sound localization, physiological investigations in the cortex reveal inhomogeneous sampling of auditory space that is difficult to reconcileExpand
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Listener weighting of cues for lateral angle: the duplex theory of sound localization revisited.
The virtual auditory space technique was used to quantify the relative strengths of interaural time difference (ITD), interaural level difference (ILD), and spectral cues in determining the perceivedExpand
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Narrow-band sound localization related to external ear acoustics.
  • J. Middlebrooks
  • Physics, Medicine
  • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
  • 1 November 1992
Human subjects localized brief 1/6-oct bandpassed noise bursts that were centered at 6, 8, 10, and 12 kHz. All testing was done under binaural conditions. The horizontal component of subjects'Expand
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Individual differences in external-ear transfer functions reduced by scaling in frequency.
  • J. Middlebrooks
  • Medicine, Mathematics
  • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
  • 23 August 1999
This study examined inter-subject differences in the transfer functions from the free field to the human ear canal, which are commonly know as head-related transfer functions. The directionalExpand
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Functional classes of neurons in primary auditory cortex of the cat distinguished by sensitivity to sound location
Could neurons in the primary auditory cortex (AI) encode the spatial location of sounds? Is location sensitivity a parameter of stimulus coding relevant to topographical organization in AI? We haveExpand
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Virtual localization improved by scaling nonindividualized external-ear transfer functions in frequency.
  • J. Middlebrooks
  • Mathematics, Medicine
  • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
  • 23 August 1999
This study examined virtual sound localization in three conditions that differed according to the directional transfer functions (DTFs) that were used to synthesize the virtual targets. The own-earExpand
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Cortical representation of auditory space: information-bearing features of spike patterns.
Previous studies have demonstrated that the spike patterns of cortical neurons vary systematically as a function of sound-source location such that the response of a single neuron can signal theExpand
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Intrinsic organization of the cat's medial geniculate body identified by projections to binaural response-specific bands in the primary auditory cortex
The area of the cat's primary auditory cortex (AI) within which high frequency sounds are represented can be subdivided using functional criteria. Within each subdivision, or “binaural interactionExpand
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