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Anxiogenic stimuli in the elevated plus-maze
TLDR
Untreated rats normally avoid the open arms of the "elevated plus-maze," preferring instead the closed arms, whereas rats treated with antianxiety drugs show far less open-arm avoidance, and diazepam had no carryover effect on rats' subsequent avoidance of the open Arms in a nondrugged state.
Effects of centrally administered anxiolytic compounds in animal models of anxiety
  • J. Menard, D. Treit
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
  • 1 March 1999
TLDR
The results suggest that the neural control of anxiety might be analogous in organization to sensorimotor systems, i.e., anxiety is controlled by complex systems of multiple, distributed, parallel pathways.
Repeated exposure to stress across the childhood-adolescent period alters rats' anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in adulthood: The importance of stressor type and gender.
TLDR
This research tests the hypothesis that specific forms of adversity in early life map onto behavioral signs analogous to depression versus anxiety in later life, and reiterate the importance of early life experience to the development of adult psychopathologies.
Dissociations among the anxiolytic effects of septal, hippocampal, and amygdaloid lesions.
TLDR
Dissociations suggest that limbic structures such as the septum, amygdala, and hippocampus exert parallel but distinct control over different fear reactions.
Lateral and medial septal lesions reduce anxiety in the plus-maze and probe-burying tests
Previous studies have shown that septal lesions produce anxiolytic-like effects in rat models of "anxiety" (i.e., septal lesions, like anxiolytic drugs, increase rats' open-arm exploration in the
The anxiolytic effects of intra-hippocampal midazolam are antagonized by intra-septal l-glutamate
TLDR
These findings suggest that the hippocampus and septum work together to regulate rats' behaviors in some (plus-maze) but not all (burying) animal tests of anxiety.
Behavioral anxiolysis without reduction of hippocampal theta frequency after histamine application in the lateral septum of rats
TLDR
The dissociation of behavioral anxiolysis and theta frequency reduction noted here suggest that hippocampalTheta frequency is not a direct index of anxiety levels in rodents, and the mechanisms underlying the behavioral and physiological effects elicited by histamine in the LS require further study.
Intra-septal infusions of excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists have differential effects in two animal models of anxiety
TLDR
It is found that intra-septal infusions of the non-NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartic acid) receptor antagonist CNQX (5 μg) suppressed open-arm avoidance in the plus-maze test, and reduced burying behavior in the shock-probe test, without affecting rats’ normal avoidance of the shock -probe.
Post-weaning social isolation increases activity in a novel environment but decreases defensive burying and subchronic MK-801 enhances the activity but not the burying effect in rats
TLDR
The behavioral abnormalities of SI rats may be a manifestation of GABAergic dysfunction that has recently become evident in schizophrenia.
Variations of maternal care differentially influence ‘fear’ reactivity and regional patterns of cFos immunoreactivity in response to the shock-probe burying test
TLDR
Results suggest that maternal care serves to 'program' neuronal circuits that modulate fear-related responding in the rat resulting in qualitatively different neuronal responses to stress.
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