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A novel suicide vector and its use in construction of insertion mutations: osmoregulation of outer membrane proteins and virulence determinants in Vibrio cholerae requires toxR
Certain environmental signals (i.e., osmolarity and the presence of amino acids) are tightly coupled to the expression of toxR-regulated proteins and therefore may be signals that are directly sensed by the ToxR protein. Expand
DNA sequence of both chromosomes of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae
The V. cholerae genomic sequence provides a starting point for understanding how a free-living, environmental organism emerged to become a significant human bacterial pathogen. Expand
Lysogenic Conversion by a Filamentous Phage Encoding Cholera Toxin
The emergence of toxigenic V. cholerae involves horizontal gene transfer that may depend on in vivo gene expression, and is shown here to be encoded by a filamentous bacteriophage (designated CTXΦ), which is related to coliphage M13. Expand
Identification of a conserved bacterial protein secretion system in Vibrio cholerae using the Dictyostelium host model system
It is shown that vas genes are required for cytotoxicity of V. cholerae cells toward Dictyostelium amoebae and mammalian J774 macrophages by a contact-dependent mechanism, and it is proposed that these genes encode a prototypic “type VI” secretion system. Expand
Use of phoA gene fusions to identify a pilus colonization factor coordinately regulated with cholera toxin.
It is concluded that the toxR gene plays a central role in the transcriptional regulation of multiple virulence genes of V. cholerae. Expand
Type VI secretion system translocates a phage tail spike-like protein into target cells where it cross-links actin
It is proposed that the VgrG components of the T6SS apparatus may assemble a “cell-puncturing device” analogous to phage tail spikes to deliver effector protein domains through membranes of target host cells. Expand
A Virulence Locus of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Encodes a Protein Secretion Apparatus
HSI-I likely contributes to the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa in CF patients and is detected in pulmonary secretions of cystic fibrosis patients and Hcp1-specific antibodies in their sera, suggesting that the apparatus functions during chronic infections. Expand
Epidemiology, Genetics, and Ecology of ToxigenicVibrio cholerae
It appears that the continual emergence of new toxigenic strains and their selective enrichment during cholera outbreaks constitute an essential component of the natural ecosystem for the evolution of epidemic V. cholerae strains and genetic elements that mediate the transfer of virulence genes. Expand
A two-component regulatory system (phoP phoQ) controls Salmonella typhimurium virulence.
We have determined that Salmonella typhimurium strains with mutations in the positive regulatory locus phoP are markedly attenuated in virulence for BALB/c mice. The DNA sequence for the phoP locusExpand
Selection of bacterial virulence genes that are specifically induced in host tissues
A genetic system was devised that positively selects for bacterial genes that are specifically induced when bacteria infect their host, and the genes identified show a marked induction in bacteria recovered from mouse spleen with the pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Expand