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Klebsiella pneumoniae: Going on the Offense with a Strong Defense
TLDR
Recent studies have identified additional K. pneumoniae virulence factors and led to more insights about factors important for the growth of this pathogen at a variety of tissue sites, but much work is left to be done in characterizing these newly discovered factors.
The activity of sigma E, an Escherichia coli heat-inducible sigma-factor, is modulated by expression of outer membrane proteins.
TLDR
It is proposed that the sigma E regulon is involved in processes that occur in extracytoplasmic compartments and that these two heat-inducible regulons may have distinct but complementary roles of monitoring the state of proteins in the cy toplasm and outer membrane.
Yersinia signals macrophages to undergo apoptosis and YopJ is necessary for this cell death.
TLDR
The ability of Y. pseudotuberculosis to promote apoptosis of macrophages in cell culture suggests that this process is important for the establishment of infection in the host and for evasion of the host immune response.
Bacterial Secretion Systems: An Overview.
TLDR
This chapter reviews the canonical features of several common bacterial protein secretion systems, as well as their roles in promoting the virulence of bacterial pathogens, and addresses recent findings that indicate that the innate immune system of the host can detect and respond to the presence ofprotein secretion systems during mammalian infection.
Requirement of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Effectors YopH and YopE in Colonization and Persistence in Intestinal and Lymph Tissues
TLDR
While no single Yop was found to be essential for colonization or persistence in intestinal tissues in single-strain infections, the absence of both YopH and YopE together almost eliminated colonization of all tissues, indicating either that these two Yops have some redundant functions or that Y. pseudotuberculosis employs multiple strategies for colonization.
rpoE, the gene encoding the second heat‐shock sigma factor, sigma E, in Escherichia coli.
TLDR
It is suggested that a gene encoding a negative regulator of sigma E activity is located immediately downstream of rpoE and may function as the target of the E s Sigma E inducing signal.
Yersinia-induced Apoptosis In Vivo Aids in the Establishment of a Systemic Infection of Mice
TLDR
It is concluded that YopJ plays a role in the establishment of a systemic infection by inducing apoptosis and that this is consistent with the ability to suppress the production of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α.
Molecular mechanisms of bacterial virulence: type III secretion and pathogenicity islands.
TLDR
The ability to obtain complex virulence traits in one genetic event, rather than by undergoing natural selection for many generations, provides a mechanism for sudden radical changes in bacterial-host interactions.
The C-Terminal Tail of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis YopM Is Critical for Interacting with RSK1 and for Virulence
TLDR
A systematic deletion analysis of YopM in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis determined which regions are required for RSK1 interactions, nuclear localization, virulence, and changes in immune cell populations during infection of mice.
Identification and characterization of an outer membrane protein, OmpX, in Escherichia coli that is homologous to a family of outer membrane proteins including Ail of Yersinia enterocolitica
TLDR
This gene is in a monocistronic operon with two promoters and a rho-independent terminator and encodes an outer membrane protein which is 83% identical to OmpX in Enterobacter cloacae, leading us to name this gene ompX.
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