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Mechanisms of hyperalgesian and morphine tolerance: a current view of their possible interactions
&NA; Over the last several years, compelling evidence has accumulated indicating that central hyperactive states resulting from neuronal plastic changes within the spinal cord play a critical role inExpand
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Opioid therapy for chronic pain.
N Engl J Med 2003;349:1943-53. Copyright © 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society. pium is a bitter, brown, granular powder derived from the seedpod of the poppy ( Papaver somniferum ). People have usedExpand
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Thermal hyperalgesia in association with the development of morphine tolerance in rats: roles of excitatory amino acid receptors and protein kinase C
In a rat model of morphine tolerance, we examined the hypotheses that thermal hyperalgesia to radiant heat develops in association with the development of morphine tolerance and that both theExpand
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Altered Expression and Uptake Activity of Spinal Glutamate Transporters after Nerve Injury Contribute to the Pathogenesis of Neuropathic Pain in Rats
The central glutamatergic system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain, and a highly active central glutamate transporter (GT) system regulates the uptake of endogenousExpand
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Neuronal Apoptosis Associated with Morphine Tolerance: Evidence for an Opioid-Induced Neurotoxic Mechanism
Tolerance to the analgesic effect of an opioid is a pharmacological phenomenon that occurs after its prolonged administration. Activation of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) has been implicated in theExpand
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Cellular mechanisms of neuropathic pain, morphine tolerance, and their interactions.
Compelling evidence has accumulated over the last several years from our laboratory, as well as others, indicating that central hyperactive states resulting from neuronal plastic changes within theExpand
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Chronic Morphine Induces Downregulation of Spinal Glutamate Transporters: Implications in Morphine Tolerance and Abnormal Pain Sensitivity
Tolerance to the analgesic effects of an opioid occurs after its chronic administration, a pharmacological phenomenon that has been associated with the development of abnormal pain sensitivity suchExpand
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Neuropathic pain: mechanisms and their clinical implications
Neuropathic pain can develop after nerve injury, when deleterious changes occur in injured neurons and along nociceptive and descending modulatory pathways in the central nervous system. The myriadExpand
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Brain indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase contributes to the comorbidity of pain and depression.
Pain and depression are frequently comorbid disorders, but the mechanism underlying this association is unknown. Here, we report that brain indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), a rate-limitingExpand
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The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist dextromethorphan selectively reduces temporal summation of second pain in man
&NA; Oral doses of dextromethorphan (DM), a common cough suppressant and Symbol (NMDA) receptor antagonist, and their vehicle control were given on a double‐blind basis to normal volunteer humanExpand
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