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Cutting Edge: Bacterial Flagellin Activates Basolaterally Expressed TLR5 to Induce Epithelial Proinflammatory Gene Expression1
- A. Gewirtz, T. Navas, Sean Lyons, P. Godowski, J. Madara
- BiologyThe Journal of Immunology
- 15 August 2001
Investigating how epithelia detect flagellin revealed that cell surface expression of Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) conferred NF-κB gene expression in response to flageLLin, providing a molecular basis for the polarity of this innate immune response.
Proinflammatory Cytokines Disrupt Epithelial Barrier Function by Apoptosis-Independent Mechanisms 1
These findings for the first time clearly separate the proapoptotic effects of IFN-γ and TNF-α from their abilities to disrupt barrier function.
Neutrophil migration across a cultured intestinal epithelium. Dependence on a CD11b/CD18-mediated event and enhanced efficiency in physiological direction.
- C. Parkos, C. Delp, M. Arnaout, J. Madara
- Biology, MedicineThe Journal of clinical investigation
- 1 November 1991
PMN from a leukocyte adherence deficiency patient also failed to migrate across epithelial monolayers thus confirming a requirement for CD11/18 integrins, and PMN transmigration in the physiological direction was 5-20 times more efficient than in the routinely studied opposite direction.
Tight junctions are membrane microdomains.
It is reported that major pools of hyperphosphorylated occludin (HO) and ZO-1 are found in raft-like membrane microdomains with characteristics of the previously described detergent-insoluble glycolipid rafts (DIGs).
Interferon-gamma directly affects barrier function of cultured intestinal epithelial monolayers.
The effects of gamma IFN on monolayer barrier function were not duplicated by the cytokine interferon 1, interleukin 2, or tumor necrosis factor, and it is speculated that such products of activation of lymphoid cells might influence barrier function of intestinal, and perhaps other epithelia in disease states.
Salmonella typhimurium attachment to human intestinal epithelial monolayers: transcellular signalling to subepithelial neutrophils
- B. McCormick, S. Colgan, C. Delp-Archer, S. Miller, J. Madara
- Biology, MedicineThe Journal of cell biology
- 2 November 1993
A novel transcellular pathway exists in which subepithelial PMN respond to lumenal pathogens across a functionally intact epithelium, and it is speculated that IL-8 may act in concert with an as yet unidentified trans cellular chemotactic factor(s) (TCF) which directs PMN migration across the intestinal epithelia.
Physiological regulation of epithelial tight junctions is associated with myosin light-chain phosphorylation.
The intimate relationship between tight junction regulation and MLC phosphorylation suggests that a critical step in regulation of epithelial tight junction permeability may be myosin ATPase-mediated contraction of the perijunctional actomyosin ring and subsequent physical tension on the tight junction.
Regulation of the movement of solutes across tight junctions.
- J. Madara
- BiologyAnnual review of physiology
It is now clear that solute permeation across tight junctions is dynamically regulated by intracellular events with a common effector mechanism apparently tied to the cytoskeleton.
Intraepithelial eosinophils: a new diagnostic criterion for reflux esophagitis.
Salmonella typhimurium translocates flagellin across intestinal epithelia, inducing a proinflammatory response.
Findings indicate that translocation of flagellin across epithelia, subsequent to apical epithelial-S.