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RNF8 Ubiquitylates Histones at DNA Double-Strand Breaks and Promotes Assembly of Repair Proteins
Accumulation of repair proteins on damaged chromosomes is required to restore genomic integrity. However, the mechanisms of protein retention at the most destructive chromosomal lesions, the DNA… Expand
Chk1 and Chk2 kinases in checkpoint control and cancer.
Accumulation of mutations and chromosomal aberrations is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells. This enhanced genetic instability is fueled by defects in the genome maintenance mechanisms including… Expand
Human CtIP promotes DNA end resection
In the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are processed into single-stranded DNA, triggering ATR-dependent checkpoint signalling and DSB repair by homologous… Expand
DNA damage response as a candidate anti-cancer barrier in early human tumorigenesis
During the evolution of cancer, the incipient tumour experiences ‘oncogenic stress’, which evokes a counter-response to eliminate such hazardous cells. However, the nature of this stress remains… Expand
RNF168 Binds and Amplifies Ubiquitin Conjugates on Damaged Chromosomes to Allow Accumulation of Repair Proteins
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) not only interrupt the genetic information, but also disrupt the chromatin structure, and both impairments require repair mechanisms to ensure genome integrity. We… Expand
ATM- and cell cycle-dependent regulation of ATR in response to DNA double-strand breaks
It is generally thought that the DNA-damage checkpoint kinases, ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR), work independently of one another. Here, we show that ATM and the… Expand
The ATM–Chk2–Cdc25A checkpoint pathway guards against radioresistant DNA synthesis
When exposed to ionizing radiation (IR), eukaryotic cells activate checkpoint pathways to delay the progression of the cell cycle. Defects in the IR-induced S-phase checkpoint cause ‘radioresistant… Expand
Oncogene-induced senescence is part of the tumorigenesis barrier imposed by DNA damage checkpoints
Recent studies have indicated the existence of tumorigenesis barriers that slow or inhibit the progression of preneoplastic lesions to neoplasia. One such barrier involves DNA replication stress,… Expand
Chromatin relaxation in response to DNA double-strand breaks is modulated by a novel ATM- and KAP-1 dependent pathway
The cellular DNA-damage response is a signaling network that is vigorously activated by cytotoxic DNA lesions, such as double-strand breaks (DSBs). The DSB response is mobilized by the nuclear… Expand
Rapid destruction of human Cdc25A in response to DNA damage.
To protect genome integrity and ensure survival, eukaryotic cells exposed to genotoxic stress cease proliferating to provide time for DNA repair. Human cells responded to ultraviolet light or… Expand