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New aspects on the melanocortins and their receptors.
TLDR
A comprehensive review of the pharmacology, physiology and molecular biology of the melanocortins and their receptors is given, and evidence is discussed suggesting that while many of the actions of the pigment are mediated via melanOCortin receptors, some appear to be mediated via mechanisms distinct from melanocorts.
The obesity gene, FTO, is of ancient origin, up-regulated during food deprivation and expressed in neurons of feeding-related nuclei of the brain.
TLDR
The FTO gene is predominantly expressed in neurons, whereas it was virtually not found in astrocytes or glia cells, consistent with the hypothesis that FTO could participate in the central control of energy homeostasis.
The MC4 receptor mediates alpha-MSH induced release of nucleus accumbens dopamine.
TLDR
Using in vivo microdialysis on anesthesized rats, it is shown that alpha- MSH administered into the ventral tegmental area induced a significant increase in dopamine and DOPAC levels in the nucleus accumbens, indicating that the effects of alpha-MSH on dopamine transmission may be mediated by the MC4 receptor.
The repertoire of solute carriers of family 6: identification of new human and rodent genes.
TLDR
An overall overview of the gene repertoire of the SLC6 gene family and its expression profile in rats is presented and it is evident that S LC6 proteins are present in both animals and bacteria, and that three of the four subfamilies of mammalian SLC 6 proteins arepresent in Caenorhabditis elegans, showing that these subfam families are evolutionary very ancient.
Chronic infusion of a melanocortin receptor agonist modulates dopamine receptor binding in the rat brain.
TLDR
It is found that a 2 week intracerebroventricular infusion of the melanocortin receptor agonist melanotan-II induced changes in dopamine D(1)-like and D(2)-like receptor binding in several regions of the rat brain, and the hypothesis that melanoc Cortin peptides may regulate the activity of central dopamine neurons is supported.
The anabolic‐androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate affects the density of dopamine receptors in the male rat brain
TLDR
Results are compatible with nandrolone induced neuroadaptive alterations in dopamine circuits associated with motor functions and behavioural paradigms known to be affected following AAS misuse.
The relative impact of chronic food restriction and acute food deprivation on plasma hormone levels and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression
TLDR
The results confirmed the relative importance in body weight homeostasis of neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin, which were increased and decreased as predicted, and suggests that the latter neuropePTides--although previously known to be involved in body Weight Homeostasis--may be of unexpected importance in states of negative energy balance.
Alcohol-preferring AA rats show a derangement in their central melanocortin signalling system
TLDR
The results support the claim that AA rats have a high ratio of POMC/AgRP expression, and that this observation is accompanied by differences in MC3 receptor levels.
Fourteen novel human members of mitochondrial solute carrier family 25 (SLC25) widely expressed in the central nervous system.
TLDR
An overall roadmap of the repertoire of the SLC25 family in mammals is provided, showing that there are at least 46 genes in the human genome coding for mitochondrial transporters.
Increased mRNA levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter in the VTA of male rats after chronic food restriction
TLDR
It is suggested that a sensitization of the mesolimbic dopamine pathway characterized by increased clearance of extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens shell may be one of the underlying causes for the food cravings that interfere with dietary compliance.
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