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CTLA-4 is a second receptor for the B cell activation antigen B7
TLDR
These findings provide direct evidence that, like its structural homologue CD28, CTLA- 4 is able to bind the B7 counter-receptor on activated B cells.
Xenogeneic Monoclonal Antibodies to Mouse Lymphoid Differentiation Antigens *
Xenogeneic immunizations have the advantage of detecting a wide range of antigenic determinants because many commonly occurring proteins have diverged significantly during the course of evolution and
Neutrophil extracellular traps enriched in oxidized mitochondrial DNA are interferogenic and contribute to lupus-like disease
TLDR
Findings highlight a role for mitochondria in the generation not only of NETs but also of pro-inflammatory oxidized mitochondrial DNA in autoimmune diseases.
4-1BB Costimulatory Signals Preferentially Induce CD8+ T Cell Proliferation and Lead to the Amplification In Vivo of Cytotoxic T Cell Responses
TLDR
It is demonstrated that CD8+ T cells when compared with CD4+ T Cells are preferentially responsive to both early activation events and proliferative signals provided via the TCR and 4-1BB.
The role of the CD28 receptor during T cell responses to antigen.
TLDR
The CD28 costimulatory receptor represents a novel target for immunosuppressive drugs and induces tyrosine phosphorylation of specific substrates, including phospholipase C gamma 1, and triggers both calcium-dependent and calcium-independent signals.
A 39-kDa protein on activated helper T cells binds CD40 and transduces the signal for cognate activation of B cells.
TLDR
Data indicate that the 39-kDa membrane protein expressed on activated Th is a binding protein for CD40 and functions to transduce the signal for Th-dependent B-cell activation.
The HE4 (WFDC2) protein is a biomarker for ovarian carcinoma.
TLDR
Blinded studies on sera from postmenopausal patients with ovarian carcinoma and controls indicate that the specificity and sensitivity of the HE4-based ELISA is equivalent to that of the CA125 assay, however, the He4 assay may have an advantage over theCA125 assay in that it is less frequently positive in patients with nonmalignant disease.
Regulation of lymphokine messenger RNA stability by a surface-mediated T cell activation pathway.
TLDR
Data show that stimuli received at the cell surface can alter gene expression by inducing specific changes in messenger RNA degradation, and this affects the steady-state messenger RNA level, transcription, or messenger RNA half-life of other T cell activation genes.
Binding of the B cell activation antigen B7 to CD28 costimulates T cell proliferation and interleukin 2 mRNA accumulation
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the CD28 signaling pathway could be activated by B7, resulting in increased T cell cytokine production and T cell proliferation, and costimulatory for T cell activation.
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