This work distinguishes diagrammatic from sentential paper-and-pencil representationsof information by developing alternative models of information-processing systems that are informationally equivalent and that can be characterized as sentential or diagrammatic, and contrasts the computational efficiency of these representotions for solving several illustrative problems in mothematics and physics.Expand

Although a sizable body of knowledge is prerequisite to expert skill, that knowledge must be indexed by large numbers of patterns that, on recognition, guide the expert in a fraction of a second to… Expand

This work describes systems that are informationally equivalent and that can be characterized as sentential or diagrammatic, and contrasts the computational efficiency of these representotions for solving several illustrative problems in mothematics and physics.Expand

Solving arithmetic word problems links the ability to execute arithmetic operations and the ability to apply these operations in real-word situations. An appropriate recent interest in word problems… Expand

This research investigated the effects of structured and unstructured overviews on learning from electronic text. It compared review strategies and text representations developed for traditional… Expand

An analysis and comparison of everyday life and the domain of science reveals significant differences in their goals and in the cognitive means used to attain these goals. Students' lack of awareness… Expand

A set of two computer-implemented models that solve physics problems in ways characteristic of more and less competent human solvers are described, providing a good account of the order in which principles are applied by humansolvers working problems in kinematics and dynamics.Expand