• Publications
  • Influence
Lake Wobegon be gone! The "below-average effect" and the egocentric nature of comparative ability judgments.
  • J. Kruger
  • Psychology
    Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1 August 1999
TLDR
The results suggest that the tendency to see oneself as above average may not be as ubiquitous as once thought.
What to Do on Spring Break?
TLDR
Compared students' predicted, on-line, and remembered spring-break experiences, as well as the influence of these factors on students' desire to take a similar vacation in the future, suggest that although on- line measures may be superior to retrospective measures for approximating objective experience, retrospective measures may still be superior for predicting choice.
Why People Fail to Recognize Their Own Incompetence
Successful negotiation of everyday life would seem to require people to possess insight about deficiencies in their intellectual and social skills. However, people tend to be blissfully unaware of
Egocentrism over e-mail: can we communicate as well as we think?
TLDR
Five experiments suggest that without the benefit of paralinguistic cues such as gesture, emphasis, and intonation, it can be difficult to convey emotion and tone over electronic mail (e-mail).
The influence of egocentrism and focalism on people's optimism in competitions: when what affects us equally affects me more.
TLDR
Six experiments investigated people's optimism in competitions and identified egocentrism and focalism as two causes of the bias that suggests that when people judge their likelihood of winning, their assessment of their own strengths and weaknesses have greater impact than their assessments of their competitors' strengths and strengths.
Counterfactual thinking and the first instinct fallacy.
Most people believe that they should avoid changing their answer when taking multiple-choice tests. Virtually all research on this topic, however, has suggested that this strategy is ill-founded:
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