• Publications
  • Influence
Unskilled and unaware of it: how difficulties in recognizing one's own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments.
  • J. Kruger, D. Dunning
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 30 November 1999
People tend to hold overly favorable views of their abilities in many social and intellectual domains. The authors suggest that this overestimation occurs, in part, because people who are unskilledExpand
  • 4,165
  • 264
  • PDF
Why the Unskilled Are Unaware: Further Explorations of (Absent) Self-Insight Among the Incompetent.
People are typically overly optimistic when evaluating the quality of their performance on social and intellectual tasks. In particular, poor performers grossly overestimate their performancesExpand
  • 459
  • 29
  • PDF
What to Do on Spring Break?
When individuals choose future activities on the basis of their past experiences, what guides those choices? The present study compared students' predicted, on-line, and remembered spring-breakExpand
  • 481
  • 25
  • PDF
Egocentrism and focalism in unrealistic optimism (and pessimism)
People tend to overestimate their comparative likelihood of experiencing a rosy future. The present research suggests that one reason for this error is that when people compare their likelihood ofExpand
  • 188
  • 20
  • PDF
The Effort Heuristic
The research presented here suggests that effort is used as a heuristic for quality. Participants rating a poem (Experiment 1), a painting (Experiment 2), or a suit of armor (Experiment 3) providedExpand
  • 213
  • 17
Why People Fail to Recognize Their Own Incompetence
Successful negotiation of everyday life would seem to require people to possess insight about deficiencies in their intellectual and social skills. However, people tend to be blissfully unaware ofExpand
  • 617
  • 16
  • PDF
Egocentrism over e-mail: can we communicate as well as we think?
Without the benefit of paralinguistic cues such as gesture, emphasis, and intonation, it can be difficult to convey emotion and tone over electronic mail (e-mail). Five experiments suggest that thisExpand
  • 313
  • 15
  • PDF
The influence of egocentrism and focalism on people's optimism in competitions: when what affects us equally affects me more.
Six experiments investigated people's optimism in competitions. The studies involved hypothetical and real competitions (course grades in Experiments 1 and 2, a trivia game in Experiments 3-5, and aExpand
  • 189
  • 12
  • PDF
If you don't want to be late, enumerate: Unpacking reduces the planning fallacy
Abstract People tend to underestimate how long it will take to complete tasks. We suggest that one reason people commit this planning fallacy is that they do not naturally “unpack” multifaceted tasksExpand
  • 154
  • 11
Counterfactual thinking and the first instinct fallacy.
Most people believe that they should avoid changing their answer when taking multiple-choice tests. Virtually all research on this topic, however, has suggested that this strategy is ill-founded:Expand
  • 82
  • 8
  • PDF