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Transforming growth factor type beta: rapid induction of fibrosis and angiogenesis in vivo and stimulation of collagen formation in vitro.
Further data are obtained to support a role for TGF-beta as an intrinsic mediator of collagen formation: conditioned media obtained from activated human tonsillar T lymphocytes contain greatly elevated levels of T GF-beta compared tomedia obtained from unactivated lymphocytes. Expand
Activation of autophagy by inflammatory signals limits IL-1β production by targeting ubiquitinated inflammasomes for destruction
It is shown that the induction of AIM2 or NLRP3 inflammasomes in macrophages triggered activation of the G protein RalB and autophagosome formation, which indicates that autophagy accompaniesinflammasome activation to temper inflammation by eliminating active inflammaomes. Expand
Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition)
There continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes, so it is important to update guidelines for monitoring autophagic activity in different organisms. Expand
TRAF6 and A20 Regulate Lysine 63–Linked Ubiquitination of Beclin-1 to Control TLR4-Induced Autophagy
Results indicate that the status of K63-linked ubiquitination of Beclin-1 plays a key role in regulating autophagy during inflammatory responses, and examination of other pro-autophagy pathways suggests that regulation of the ubiquitinations state of BeClin- 1 may be a general mechanism for the induction of autophagic by pro-inflammatory stimuli. Expand
Active Suppression of Interneuron Programs within Developing Motor Neurons Revealed by Analysis of Homeodomain Factor HB9
Evidence is presented that the homeodomain factor HB9 is critical for distinguishing MN and interneuron identity in the mouse and resembles a composite of the avian homologs MNR2 and HB9. Expand
Production of transforming growth factor beta by human T lymphocytes and its potential role in the regulation of T cell growth
TGF-beta may be an important antigen-nonspecific regulator of human T cell proliferation, and important in T cell interaction with other cell types whose cellular functions are modulated by TGF- beta. Expand
Tumor necrosis factor alpha induces expression of human immunodeficiency virus in a chronically infected T-cell clone.
Transient-transfection experiments demonstrated that the inductive effects of TNF-alpha were due to specific activation of the HIV long terminal repeat, providing evidence that T NF-alpha may play a role in the mechanisms of pathogenesis of HIV infection. Expand
Pancreas dorsal lobe agenesis and abnormal islets of Langerhans in Hlxb9-deficient mice
The mouse HLXB9 orthologue, Hlxb9, is key to normal pancreas development and function and has small islets of Langerhans with reduced numbers of insulin-producing β-cells. Expand
MyD88 and Trif Target Beclin 1 to Trigger Autophagy in Macrophages*
  • C. Shi, J. Kehrl
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of Biological Chemistry
  • 28 November 2008
It is demonstrated that not only TLR4, but also other TLR family members induce autophagy in macrophages, which is inhibited by MyD88, Trif, or Beclin 1 shRNA expression. Expand
SARS-Coronavirus Open Reading Frame-9b Suppresses Innate Immunity by Targeting Mitochondria and the MAVS/TRAF3/TRAF6 Signalosome
It is shown that SARS-CoV ORF-9b manipulates host cell mitochondria and mitochondrial function to help evade host innate immunity and illustrates the havoc that a small ORF can cause in cells. Expand