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Review of Oximes in the Antidotal Treatment of Poisoning by Organophosphorus Nerve Agents
  • J. Kassa
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Journal of toxicology. Clinical toxicology
  • 1 January 2002
The H oximes appear to be very promising antidotes against nerve agents because they are able to protect experimental animals from toxic effects and improve survival of animals poisoned with supralethal doses. Expand
Chemical aspects of pharmacological prophylaxis against nerve agent poisoning.
Future development will be focused on scavengers acting before the binding of nerve agent to the target sites, and on other drugs reversible cholinesterase inhibitors (e.g. huperzine A, physostigmine, acridine derivatives etc.). Expand
Specification of the structure of oximes able to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase.
T trimmedoxime seemed to be a significantly more efficacious reactivator than the others in the case of tabun poisonings, and other structural analogues of trimedoxime were found to be efficacious in counteracting tabun-induced acetylcholinesterase inhibition although not as efficacious as trimingoxime itself. Expand
Toxic effects of sarin in rats at three months following single or repeated low-level inhalation exposure.
It is confirmed that both non-convulsive symptomatic and clinically asymptomatic concentrations of sarin can only cause very few, subtle long-term signs of neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity in sarin-poisoned rats when the rats were exposed to asymPTomatic sarin concentrations repeatedly. Expand
The long-term influence of low-level sarin exposure on behavioral and neurophysiological functions in rats.
Nerve agents such as sarin seem to be harmful not only at high, clinically symptomatic doses but also at low, clinically asymptomatic doses because of long term manifestation of alteration of neurophysiological functions in sarin-exposed rats without disruption of cholinergic nervous system. Expand
Biochemical and Behavioral Effects of Soman Vapors in Low Concentrations
Long-term effects were observed after inhalation exposure of guinea pigs to sublethal concentrations of soman and changes in AChE and butyrylcholinesterase activities, stressogenic markers, and neuroexcitability and behavior 24 h and 4 wk following a single soman inhalation Exposure at low level. Expand
Synthesis of a new reactivator of tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase.
Synthesis of a new asymmetric bisquaternary reactivator of tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase-1-(4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)-4-(4-carbamoylpyridinium) butane dibromide is described.Expand
New quaternary pyridine aldoximes as casual antidotes against nerve agents intoxications.
None from the currently tested A cholinesterase reactivators is able to reactivate AChE inhibited by all nerve agents used and, therefore, the search for new potential broad spectrum A ChE reactivator is needed. Expand
The influence of low-level sarin inhalation exposure on spatial memory in rats
It is confirmed that both nonconvulsive symptomatic and clinically asymptomatic concentrations of sarin can cause relatively long-term memory impairments in sarin-poisoned rats when the rats are exposed to clinically ascyptomatic sarin concentration repeatedly. Expand
The positive influence of a cholinergic-anticholinergic pretreatment and antidotal treatment on rats poisoned with supralethal doses of soman.
It is suggested that cholinergic-anticholinergic pretreatment seems able to enhance the efficacy of antidotal treatment in restoring respiratory and circulatory changes induced by soman. Expand