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X-Ray Ionization of the Disks of Young Stellar Objects
We have developed a Monte Carlo code for the transport of stellar X-rays in an axially symmetric disk. The code treats Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption and follows the X-rays untilExpand
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X-Ray Ionization of Protoplanetary Disks
In the light of new observations of star forming regions by the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) and by ROSAT, we assess the ability of young stars to ionize their ownExpand
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Neon Fine-Structure Line Emission By X-ray Irradiated Protoplanetary Disks
Using a thermal-chemical model for the generic T Tauri disk of D'Alessio and colleagues, we estimate the strength of the fine-structure emission lines of Ne II and Ne III at 12.81 and 15.55 μm thatExpand
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Heating Protoplanetary Disk Atmospheres
We calculate the thermal-chemical structure of the gaseous atmospheres of the inner disks of T Tauri stars, starting from the density and dust temperature distributions derived by D’Alessio andExpand
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The K tree score: quantification of differences in the relative branch length and topology of phylogenetic trees
We introduce a new phylogenetic comparison method that measures overall differences in the relative branch length and topology of two phylogenetic trees. Expand
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Viviparity stimulates diversification in an order of fish
Species richness is distributed unevenly across the tree of life and this may be influenced by the evolution of novel phenotypes that promote diversification. Viviparity has originated ∼150 times inExpand
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Phylogeography and postglacial expansion of the endangered semi-aquatic mammal Galemys pyrenaicus
BackgroundSpecies with strict ecological requirements may provide new insights into the forces that shaped the geographic variation of genetic diversity. The Pyrenean desman, Galemys pyrenaicus, is aExpand
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Novel intron markers to study the phylogeny of closely related mammalian species
BackgroundMultilocus phylogenies can be used to infer the species tree of a group of closely related species. In species trees, the nodes represent the actual separation between species, thusExpand
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Multilocus species trees and species delimitation in a temporal context: application to the water shrews of the genus Neomys
BackgroundMultilocus data are becoming increasingly important in determining the phylogeny of closely related species and delimiting species. In species complexes where unequivocal fossilExpand
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