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BoneJ: Free and extensible bone image analysis in ImageJ.
The evolution of femoral osteology and soft tissues on the line to extant birds (Neornithes)
- J. Hutchinson
- 1 February 2001
The pattern of morphological evolution is consistent with stepwise functional evolution of the hindlimb within Dinosauromorpha on the line to Neornithes, and the clade Ornithurae evolved the last few hind Limb apomorphies that characterize extant birds, in conjunction with more flexed hip and knee joints.
Pelvic and hindlimb musculature of Tyrannosaurus rex (Dinosauria: Theropoda)
A new reconstruction of the pelvic and hindlimb muscles of the large theropod dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex is developed, using data from both extant and fossil turtles, lepidosaurs, and archosaurs to constrain inferences concerning the soft‐tissue structures in T. rex.
The evolution of hindlimb tendons and muscles on the line to crown-group birds.
- J. Hutchinson
- BiologyComparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A…
- 1 December 2002
The locomotor kinematics of Asian and African elephants: changes with speed and size
- J. Hutchinson, D. Schwerda, D. Famini, R. Dale, M. Fischer, R. Kram
- BiologyJournal of Experimental Biology
- 1 October 2006
This large dataset establishes what the normal kinematics of elephant locomotion are, and can be applied to identify gait abnormalities that may signal musculoskeletal pathologies, a matter of great importance to keepers of captive elephants.
Biomechanics: Are fast-moving elephants really running?
Video analysis is used to show that Asian elephants can move at surprisingly high speeds of up to 6.8 m s−1 (25 km h−1) and that, although their gait might seem to be a walk even at this speed, some features of their locomotion conform to definitions of running.
Analysis of hindlimb muscle moment arms in Tyrannosaurus rex using a three-dimensional musculoskeletal computer model: implications for stance, gait, and speed
A three-dimensional graphics-based model of the musculoskeletal system of the Cretaceous theropod dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex that predicts muscle-tendon unit paths, lengths, and moment arms for a range of limb positions and finds that more upright poses would have improved mechanical advantage of the muscles considerably strengthens the conclusion that T. rex was not an exceptionally fast runner.
Adductors, abductors, and the evolution of archosaur locomotion
Fossil theropods document the stepwise evolution of a novel mechanism of limb adduction/abduction involving long-axis rotation of the femur, which accounts for the conspicuous absence of significant musculature ventral and dorsal to the hip joint in extant birds.
Tyrannosaur Paleobiology: New Research on Ancient Exemplar Organisms
The biology and evolutionary history of tyrannosaurs are reviewed and their phylogenetic relations are updated to include several new fossils, showing that tyrannosaurs originated by the Middle Jurassic but remained mostly small and ecologically marginal until the latest Cretaceous.